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Aquarium Algae Control; Brown Diatom, Hair, Marine, BBA, Green Spot & Water


By Carl Strohmeyer-PAMR 40+ years experience

This Aquarium Answers article (post) is not intended as a complete algae control article, but is intended to address the types of algae that I receive the most questions about which are Brown Diatom Algae, Freshwater Thread/Hair Algae, Black Beard Brush Algae (BBA), and Marine Hair Algae aka Filamentous marine algae (I address other algae as well in this article). I will add to and update this article as well over time.

The information contained herein is based on my experience with literally 1000s of contract client aquariums over the years, as well as research, and feedback from other aquarium keeping professionals.
Please note that algae control is NOT an exact science and there are many methods I have not used or researched that may also work. As well, my methods may not work as well for some as all it often takes is new/different variable for an algae control method to be less effective.
It is is also noteworthy that one should start with a healthy bio filter; meaning an aquarium that is not battling high ammonia & nitrites. Many of the methods cited here for algae control address the bio filter, but some do not and those that do should be used first based on my experience.
As well, one common thread as to aquarium algae issues that emerged of late is the common use of poorly designed Chinese made LEDs that do not understand the basics of aquarium lighting PUR, often having too much light in the "blue" spectrums

The bottom line is I do not claim that this article is the "end all" for algae control, but I do think the majority of readers will find this article useful, often with information not found elsewhere.

Updated 5/10/20

Brown/Diatom Algae

Brown Diatom Algae Brown Algae is not considered a true algae as per many biologists, rather a diatom. However under the 5 Kingdom classification system both Brown Diatoms and more common algae fall into the "grab bag" Kingdom; "Proctotista", although Brown Diatom Algae fall into the division Bacillariophyceae.

What is also noteworthy is there is evidence of some diatom "algae" as a green colored slime like algae instead of the much more common brown diatom algae that is a common problem with new aquariums.

Green Snot Diatom Algae, Didymosphenia geminata in aquariums This has been called "Green Snot Algae" (scientific name Didymosphenia geminata) and is becoming more common in streams just under the surface and/or covering rocks (pictured to the right).
Also commonly known as didymo, this is a rapidly spreading invasive species of diatom.

Wikipedia; Didymosphenia geminata
Didymo risk goes beyond green snot in rivers

What are Diatoms?
Diatoms also single-cell organisms but are significantly larger and more complicated than cyanobacteria. They have cell walls containing silica. The individual cells are yellow-green to brown. They contain two types of chlorophyll and at some stage in their life cycles have motile stages which move by the action of one or two tiny beating hairs called flagella.

Most diatoms show very limited mobility and exist primarily as groups of cells growing a strong film over the surface of object.
Note, cyanobacteria can mimic Brown Diatom Algae, but cyanobacteria are readily swept away with little effort while Brown Diatom Algae is not.

In low concentrations they probably don't have any noticeable effect in aquarium systems, and indeed they are probably always present.
These diatom cells are encased within a unique cell wall made of silica (hydrated silicon dioxide). The yellowish-brown chloroplasts within Brown Diatom algae are what give this “algae” its typical appearance.
Brown Diatoms are found in fresh and saltwater as well as soil. Diatoms are a major component of plankton, free-floating microorganisms of marine or freshwater environments.

Not all diatoms float freely though; many may cling to surfaces such as aquatic plants, gravel, décor, molluscs, and crustaceans.
Brown Diatom Algae are dependent upon silicates and high DOC (dissolved organic compounds) in the water and thrive in conditions where the minerals and Redox are out of balance. Brown diatom algae also out compete more desirable green algae in these conditions when light is poor for healthy photosynthesis due to lack adequate amounts of light in the proper PAR.

More about poor lighting: light in the proper PAR

With the above points in mind, I will again emphasize that Brown Diatoms MUST have silicates present to reproduce, although removal of all silicates is often not feasible. In many of the methods (outlined in the removal tips below), the aquarist can lower the available silicates such as by simply adding plants or encouraging green algae to grow which will out compete the Brown diatoms.

From the Aquarium Answers article; “Aquarium Test Kits” here are some silicate parameters:
Natural seawaters contain silicates around 10 ppm however due to differences in a closed system (which an aquarium is) and the ocean it is best to maintain silicates under 1 ppm in an aquarium to prevent diatom blooms and aid in uptake of essential elements such as Strontium by corals.
Reference: Aquarium Test Kits; Information, Review

Product Resource: Salifert Silicate/Silica Test Kit

In freshwater, silicates are generally between 4-20 ppm and should be kept under 4 ppm in an aquarium, although usually this is not a problem in healthy established freshwater aquariums where lighting is good to encourage plants or green algae (both of which will starve also consume silicates limiting diatom growth).

This is a common algae in new aquariums (including marine tanks), especially aquariums that have not fully cycled as this leaves many available nutrients for these diatoms.
If an established aquarium struggles with these diatoms, this is often an indicator of excessive silica, poor mineral/electrolyte balance, an unstable biological aquarium environment, which in turn is often caused by poor filtration, poor cleaning procedures, Redox balance, inadequate aquarium lighting or over medication.

Finally as per Silicates, do NOT confuse these with silicon/silica, as the later is inert while Silicates are not!
Silicate is made up of silicon, oxygen, and metals such as aluminium.

Keeping healthy aquarium resources:
Aquarium Cleaning, Methods, Reasons, Procedures
Aquarium Redox Potential, Reduction, Oxidation
Aquarium Lighting, PAR, lumens, CRI, watts, types and more


Here are a few tips (suggestions) for eradication of Brown Diatom Algae (in no particular order of importance):

Common Green Algae (Sometimes referred to as Dust Algae)

This is the most common algae in established freshwater aquariums with or without plants.
This is the algae that coats the front and side glass. It's generally a good sign if that is the only algae that is noticeable in your tank. Generally simply scraping the glass and rinsing off plastic plants with a 1/25 bleach/water solution (followed by a rinsing with de-chlorinators and water) prior to your water change is all that's needed to control this easy to control.

Green Spot Algae

These are hard circular algae spots that take hard scrubbing too remove from the tank glass.
Moderate to high phosphate limited tanks have more problems with green spot algae on plants.

Green Spot Algae is often eliminated with increasing phosphate levels in your water. Try to maintain at least 0.3 to 0.5 of phosphates throughout the week and more preferable is in the range of 1.0 - 2.0 ppm of phosphates (however this algae is considered normal in small amounts).

Correct lighting has also been reported by many to lower the incidence of Green Spot Algae, although not eliminate it totally.
By "correct" lighting I do NOT mean necessarily more lighting, rather lighting that hits the best possible PUR with as little of yellow, and a more balanced red and green spectrum.
Reference this other article from Aquarium Answers:
PUR vs PAR in Aquarium Lighting

Some Plecostomus such as the Rubbernose may help, however these fish may also damage plants as well.

Control of Aglae in Planted Aquaria

Thread/Hair Algae (also Blanket Weed Algae more commonly found in Ponds, may look & respond very similarly)

Hair Algae Most Thread/Hair algae grow extremely fast. Most of the time hair algae come into an aquarium attached to the plant you purchased (I have seen it many times attached to the root structure of Java Fern). It can also come in as some floating fragments in the water with newly purchased fish. As well Hair Algae may be attached to snail shells (often in hard to see tiny “hairs”).
Some aquarium keepers believe that hair algae comes into an aquarium in spores and this may be how it spreads (airborne spores are more likely a problem with a pond), however there is no hard evidence to support this idea; likely the Hair Algae was probably there all the time in vegetative form, but there wasn't enough of it to be noticed until it multiplied under the right conditions.

Please click on the picture to enlarge for a better view

You can manually remove handfuls every couple of days. After eliminating this type of algae is it a good idea to add an algae eating crew.

There are many fish that may help with this;
Rosy Barbs, American-Flag Fish, Amano Shrimp, Bristlenose Plecostomus, even Platties.

Other Suggestions for control:


Green Water in AquariumGreen water in aquariums is caused by free floating algae.

Common Causes:

Corrective Measures for Green Water:

Marine Hair Algae (Green Filamentous Algae)

green filamentous algae Although not the problem or scourge that red slime (Cyanobacteria), this algae can over take an aquarium in short order and is often an indicator of high nitrates and phosphates.
Although I consider algae growth generally an indicator of a healthy marine aquarium, normally I recommend less problematic algae such as the Macro-Algae as your measure for success.

Macro-algae is the 'plant' and encrusting algae that you see in many experienced saltwater aquarists marine tanks.
Caulerpa spp, encrusting corallines (a group of Red algae resembling corals), Bubble Algae aka; Valonia macroalgae (although bubble algae can become problem algae on occasion as well) are examples here.
Other beneficial algae that do not take over an aquarium include Green Gracillaria algae as these green algae are beneficial for nitrate reduction without the “overbearing problems of Green Filamentous algae which tends to take over an aquarium, often squeezing out your polyps, mushrooms, etc.

 Marine Hair Algae Suggestions for control:

BBA/Black Brush Algae/Black Beard Algae/Red Algae

BBA, Black Beard Algae Technically this is a type of red algae, but that classification does not define its appearance.
This unwanted algae that is often the "scurge" of many planted aquarium keepers grows in feathery black or red tufts 2-3 mm long, and often shows up on older parts of plants and on slower-growing plants like Anubias, Amazon Swords, and some Echinodorus.

Black beard/brush algae is a form of "red algae" in the genus Audouinella that commonly attaches to edges of plant leaves or drift wood and is more common in low CO2 water conditions, that are low in most minerals (although often high in iron), carbonates, and pH, although these algae will also grow in alkaline, high pH waters as well.
(Click on the picture to the left for another view)

This is in my opinion is the most aggravating freshwater algae I know of and I have not found a 100% magic bullet for this as of yet, although of late based on feedback of many other experts in the field, good quality lighting seems to make a big difference.
I also have plant keeping friends in hobby and profession that also want to pull their hair out when it comes to this algae, but these are the persons that have told me of late that switching from lighting such as T5 to high quality LEDs has made a big difference

This furry, thread-like flora attaches to various aquarium surfaces including the edges of plant leaves, filter tubes and even gravel. It may have many colors (purple, gray-green, black) and resembles beard hair or fur.
In the aquarium literature, this nuisance is often called beard or brush algae.

Most aquarists consider BBA to come in three forms;

  1. The long thread variety is called beard algae
  2. The shorter thread type is called brush algae
  3. And a third type is described as having very short threads and forms dark semi-round spots.

Physically removing rocks and wood that have these algae on it and then scrubbing it off will also give plants a better chance of utilizing nutrients and over coming these algae.

The use of Sea Chem Flourish Excel often in double or even higher doses has been shown to be occasionally helpful in control of this algae (although not as well as some other algae such as Hair Algae).
Part of the reason for some effectiveness by Flourish Excel (or better, AAP NilocG Enhance) is that this product slows algae growth on plant leaves allowing the plant to out compete the algae for nutrients (including carbon and light).

Another part of the reason behind some effectiveness by Flourish Excel is the Aldehyde based formula. Aldehyde are effected by oxidation which is another indicator of the importance of VERY regular but often small water changes (as much as 5-10% per day) to bring about a healthy Redox (among other methods of Redox control).
This admittedly is only a theory at this point, however I have observed vastly better algae control (of all sorts of algae) in ponds where I achieved a healthy Redox via flow through water changes, mineralization and a PROPERLY installed TRUE Level One UV Sterilizer (not a UV Clarifier ONLY such as many of the Submariner, AquaTop, etc.).

Reference: Redox in Aquarium

Product Resources:
SeaChem Flourish Excel from American Aquarium
*True Level 1 UV Sterilizers for Aquarium/Pond

A few ideas for removal/control of BBA
(Please see the summary of this article for more general algae control ideas that can apply to BBA as well)

The use of baths/dips for treatment of BBA:

Sea Chem Flourish Excel can be used as a quick dip solution (about 30 seconds) for plants to kill algae.
I recommend diluting with about 5 parts water with 1 part Flourish Excel, however I have not established an exact dilution as of yet (so experimentation may be necessary).

Hydrogen Peroxide can also be used as a dip/bath (or even added directly to the aquarium), this can be especially effective for the control of Black Beard Algae.
When added directly to the tank, this is best at a rate of 2 oz. of 3% Hydrogen Peroxide per 10 gallons.

HOWEVER this is best done WITHOUT shrimp (such as Cherry Shrimp) present, as this will generally kill them. As well many fish are sensitive to Hydrogen Peroxide, such as Cory and Oto Catfish, so my preferred use is as a dip/bath.
Even then some plants are sensitive as well such as Corkscrew Vallisneria, so experiment with Hydrogen Peroxide in small amounts if unsure or simply use my preferred method baths/dips which is Flourish Excel as noted earlier.

For plant baths, I would recommend about 4 oz. of 3% Hydrogen Peroxide for approximately 30 minutes. For a 30 second dip, about a 5 to 1 solution of Hydrogen Peroxide applied by basting the plants with the solution (this solution can be increased if results are not satisfactory).

Please read this article for about the use and risks of Hydrogen Peroxide:
Aquarium Medications Part 3; Hydrogen Peroxide

Finally as I noted earlier about BBA, it can be a frustrating algae, however I have often found it much simpler to control this algae rather than pull my hair out in trying to totally eradicate it.
This is often easily done with some of the suggestions in the summary of this article (please read further), such as trimming of leaves with the BBA, scraping of these leaves as well, correct lighting (meaning 6500 K high PAR lights and no actinic), good mineralization, added CO2 which includes methods such as Flourish Excel in its bio available liquid form, regular water changes, and more.

Cyanobacteria (Blue Green Algae/ Red Slime Algae)

Blue/Green Algae which is more appropriately called Cyanobacteria is more closely related to bacteria than algae. Cyanobacteria can be a difficult problem in both fresh and saltwater.

Cyanobacteria is more common in a tank that is not healthy or that has a high load of dissolved organics.
Cyanobacteria has many species and forms and causes great angst among planted tank beginners and experienced hobbyist alike. Some forms of BGA grow slow and are very difficult to kill, other species grow very quickly and can overwhelm and "smother" all the plants in short order.

For my full discussion of Cyanobacteria, please see my separate article about it:
“Cyanobacteria (Red/Orange Slime, Blue Green Algae) in Aquariums”


Most true algae (not Cyanobacteria) compete with plants for the same nutrients and light, so battling algae is often very difficult.
However from my experience with ponds in particular it is often a “battle” than cannot be totally won but certainly can be checked by keeping nutrients away from algae (such as substrate nutrients) while providing them to plants and understanding that algae are more simple life forms than plants and have less complicated needs, so addressing the more complex needs of higher plants will allow them to out compete.
Sometimes this is as simple as removal of as much algae as possible to give the plants a foot hold, although this can also be a much more difficult task.

Often just lighting, just ferts, or just CO2/carbon issues are blamed, when in fact it is generally combination of all.
For instance if you improve light, you will also need more CO2, and often more nutrients. Failure to provide CO2 and nutrients while improving/increasing lighting, will often result in more algae and poor plant growth.

A couple resources to simply improve CO2 & Nutrients (Ferts)
*ISTA Co2 Disposable Cartridge Supply Set from AAP
*AAP; NPK & All in One Planted Aquarium Ferts/Nutrients

Here are some factors that MAY affect unwanted algae growth in your planted aquarium;

*Unusable/Unavailable nutrients (micronutrients and macronutrients) as well as Nutrient Imbalance.

Here is a list of important nutrients (listed in recommended added solution, not ppm as stated earlier in the article):
Potassium (often available as Soluble Potash)- .37%, Iron- .32%, Sulfur- .27%, Sodium- .13%, Calcium- .14%, Magnesium- .11%, Nitrogen- .07%, Nitrogen- .07%, Available Phosphate- .01%, Boron- .009%, Cobalt- 0004%, Copper- .0001%, Zinc- .0007% Molybdenum- .0009%,.

Here are a few product sources:

Not all these sources have all the required nutrients many can be mixed as you find your own success.

Much has been published lately about the addition of PO4 (phosphates) to control algae, however I believe this is only partially correct and based on some false assumptions.
PO4 along with NO3 and Potassium are important Macronutrients that need to be in balance.
I have found that simply changing water will (assuming proper mineralization of new water) will control algae by adding all these macronutrients.

What is happening is that algae are much better equipped than higher plants to compete in conditions of low nutrients, however the addition of these nutrients allows much better competition.
Adding only PO4 does not bring these macronutrients into balance and even though many claim this solved their problem, they have not run a control group to see if this was only part of the equation.

*Important! - Poor lighting or Too Much Light; Poor Lighting quality that does not allow plants to compete with algae can be a cause of difficult algae issues.
Although when more useful light energy is added more nutrients including CO2 are needed.
I do not agree with the method of darkening a tank for a few days as plants often have higher light requirements than algae (in part due to their complexity), this only gives the algae more time to out compete plants!

However as per the Walstad/German method of planted aquarium keeping, you can interrupt the lighting schedule in 4 hour increments. In other words, leaving the light on for only 4 hrs at a time (this though does assume optimum spectrum lighting).
Example: Lights on @ 8 am, then turn lights off from 12 pm. Then again turn lights back on @ 4 pm until 8 pm for the rest of the night.

Basically only using your tank light for 8 total hrs per day, with a 4 hour break, in the middle of the "lighting period".
The purpose is:

  1. To cut back algae by starving it of the necessary length of light exposure it needs to grow.
  2. To boost plant growth by allowing CO2 to build back up naturally during the mid-day lighting break, thus providing the plants more CO2 to use during the second Photosynthesis period, which starts when your lights go back on for the evening.
    During this time, if using plant nutrients, try cutting back on the dose used and or frequency of use, as any nutrients in the water that go unused by the plants will go to algae.

Further Reference, a MUST READ:
Aquarium Lighting; Complete Information

*Poor substrate for healthy plant growth (only certain plants!).
Make sure your substrate is rich in Iron (Fe).
Iron is an important trace element; your tank substrate should contain a reasonable amount of Iron.
Liquid iron will, if over dosed, favor Hair algae. It can be added through tablet Iron rich fertilizers and through substrates like SeaChem Fluorite, Laterite and EcoComplete

Product Resource: SeaChem Fluorite

*High or too low Nitrates.
Nitrates should be between 10 & 15 ppm for plants; with nitrates above 40 ppm, I have seen excessive algae growth in many aquariums (although high nitrates are rarely a problem in tanks with healthy plant growth).
Too low and plants will starve for this important macronutrient.

Further References:
*Freshwater Aquarium Plant Care
*Nitrates in Aquariums, Ponds

*Aquarium Cleaning Frequency.
Often increasing the frequency (even twice or three times per week) will improve conditions in the aquarium so as to allow plants to out compete algae.
In part this improves the macronutrient balance as discussed above (as well as improvements in Redox and lowering DOC).
Further Reference: Aquarium Cleaning, Reasons, Frequency, Methods

*Trim plants of dying, decaying, or algae covered leaves, even if this removes much of your plants.
This is much like pruning in your garden. This forces plants to generate new and healthy leaves that will often do better at out competing algae.

*Dip your new plants or even established plants, although this will cause a temporary shock to established plants.

Here are a few dip methods;

*Improper GH and KH levels (or mineralization, especially GH).
Here is an important point:
“The release of carbonate converted from bicarbonate by plant life can cause pH to climb dramatically (above 9) during periods of rapid photosynthesis by dense phytoplankton (algal) blooms. This rise in pH can occur in low alkalinity water (20 to 50 mg/L) or in water with moderate to high bicarbonate alkalinity (75 to 200 mg/L) that has less than 25 mg/L hardness.”

* UV Sterilization;
Despite many claims that a UV Sterilizer can only kill free floating algae, I have found evidence in many tests that a UV Sterilizer can control (not eliminate) the spread of some algae.
I do not have a conclusive answer as to why I have found these positive results with algae control in aquariums (& ponds) with the use of UV Sterilizers/Clarifiers, however I suspect the reason is twofold:
(1) The UV Irradiation kills algae spores, thus slowing the spread (as noted earlier, algae that spread "vegetatively" such as hair algae may see little improvement with the addition of a UV Sterilizer).
(2) Improvement in water conditions such as Redox Balance via TRUE level 1 UVC Sterilization

Further Reference: True UV-C Sterilization for Aquarium or Pond

*A poor Redox Balance/Potential; which is often improved by better and more frequent water changes and proper mineralization such as Calcium, Magnesium and sodium as stated above.

Aquarium RO, superior value to Bulk Reef Supply RODI *The use of either all Reverse Osmosis water or blended (such as 1/2 or 1/4 mixed with tap or well water) can aid in many algae control as this allows the aquarium keeper to adjust water chemistry more from a "clean slate" approach especially where tap/well water contains high phosphates, nitrates, iron or similar elements/nutrients that favor algae.

Be aware that it is important to add essential minerals and carbonates back into RO water with products such as SeaChem Replenish or Wonder Shells.

See these articles for more about Reverse Osmosis (RO) water use:
Aquarium Chemistry
Use of Reverse Osmosis Water In Aquariums

Product Resources:
*Reverse Osmosis Water Filter System for Aquarium
*SeaChem Replenish; RO Water Mineral Adjuster
*Wonder Shell; Aquarium, Pond Mineral Blocks (unique AAP)

Whole Tank Algae Treatment using H2O2 & Glutaral Dehyde
Sometimes simply "nuking" your planted tank is the most simple way to get rid of unwanted algae, regardless of the cause.

Here is a method from: The "One-Two Punch" Whole Tank Algae Treatment

Further Reading/References:

*The Krib; Control of Red Algae in the Freshwater Aquarium
*The Krib; Hair (thread) Algae
*Introduction to Bacillariophyta (The Diatoms)
*Planted Aquarium Keeping Information
*A Discussion of Algae

Other Recommended Reference & Product Sites

Fish Diseases, How to Treat Sick Fish
Fish Diseases | How to Treat Sick Fish

Marine Aquarium Care Basics
Saltwater Aquarium Information; Basic to Advanced

Freshwater Aquarium Care, Basics
Freshwater Aquarium Care

Sponge Filter Use Information
Sponge Filtration; Complete Sponge Filter Use Information

*Aquarium Silicone; USDA 100% Fish Safe
100% Fish Safe, USDA & Agricultre Canada approved.
The same CANNOT be said for Hardware Store brands!!

TMC Premium Fluidized Sand Bed Filters

Premium, second to NONE Aquarium Bio Filters, that with Oolitic Sand also maintain essential marine aquarium calcium levels, alkalinity, & electrolytes that are important to ALL Marine life, Goldfish, African Cichlids, Livebearers & more

Aquarium Sponge Filter
Aquarium Sponge Filters

The Premium ATI Hydro Sponge Filter, from the only online seller with professional use dating back to 1978 (prior to the Internet)

Ocean Nutrition Seaweed Salad fish food
San Francisco Bay Brand Seaweed Salad

"Seaweed Salad" is much more nutritious than spinach and lettuce.
This product is recommended for all freshwater Algae Eaters, African Cichlids, Silver Dollars, Sharks, all saltwater Damsels, Clownfish, and especially Marine Angels and Tangs

TMC V2 RO Filter systems; the very best you can buy with TDS meter:

Reverse Osmosis Aquarium Water Filter, TDSReverse Osmosis Aquarium Water Filters; with TDS Meter

A good compliment to RO water or for any freshwater aquarium to add ESSENTIAL Mineral Ions:
*Wonder Shells, Mineral Block


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In Chronological order of writing with the newest at the top

  1. How to Treat Sick Fish
  2. Whirling Disease in Fish
  3. Reef Aquarium Chemistry Maintenance
  4. Use of RO, DI, Softwater in Aquariums
  5. Lighting Theory of a Planted Aquarium- RQE, PFY, PAS, & PUR
  6. Aquarium or Pond Bio Load
  7. Tuberculosis in Fish
  8. PUR vs PAR in Aquarium Lighting
  9. Head Pressure in Aquarium and Pond Water Pumps
  10. Fin/Tail Rot For Betta & ALL Fish
  11. Angelfish Virus/Aids
  12. Activated Carbon
  13. Fish Baths/Dips as an aid to treatment
  14. Streptococcus gram positive bacterium in aquariums, Eye Infections
  15. Hydrogen Sulfide
    production in anaerobic De-Nitrification for Aquarium/Ponds
  16. Fish Shipping
  17. Aquarium Size, Fish Stunting
  18. Aquarium Algae,
    BBA & Brown Algae in particular
  19. Aquarium Salt (Sodium chloride) in Freshwater Aquariums
  20. Betta Habitat; Wild Bettas to Domestic Betta environment parameters
  21. HITH; Hole in the Head Disease
  22. Aquarium Protein Skimmers, Ozonizers
  23. Power Head/ Water Pump Review
  24. Molly Disease/ Mollies in an Aquarium
  25. Basic Fish Anatomy, Fin Identification
  26. Aquarium Moving/ Power Failures
  27. Octopus as Aquarium Pets
  28. Aquarium Nitrates
  29. Ichthyophonus protists, fungus in fish
  30. Aquarium and Pond Filter Media
    Types; Mechanical, Bio, Chemical
  31. Aquarium Water Conditioners (also Pond)
  32. Fish Parasites; Trematodes & Monogeneans; Annelids and Nematodes;
    Flukes, internal worms, Detritus Worms (often confused with Planaria), Micro Worms
  33. Aquarium Silicone Application;
    DIY Aquarium Repair & Glass thickness
  34. Pond Veggie Filters; DIY Bog Filter
  35. The difference between Plaster of Paris and Aquarium Products such a Wonder Shells:
    Identification, prevention & Treatment
  37. AQUARIUM TEST KITS; Use & Importance
  38. SEXING FISH; Basics
  39. Chocolate Chip, Knobby and Fromia Starfish
  40. Freshwater Velvet & Costia
  41. Usnic Acid as a Fish Remedy
  42. Aquarium Heaters; Types, information
  43. The Lateral Line in Fish, Lateral Line Disease
    or Head and Lateral Line Erosion (HLLE)
  44. Tap Water use in Aquarium; Chloramines, Chlorine
  45. Can Black Ghost Knife fish give an electric shock?
  46. Bio Wheel Review; Do Bio-Wheels really work?
  47. How do Fish Drink?
    Use of RO Water
  48. Cyclops, and Predatory Damselfly larvae
  49. Betta with Dropsy;
    Treatment and Prevention of DROPSY in all fish
  50. pH and KH problems in African Cichlid Aquarium
  51. Aquarium Gravel, which size?
  52. Blue green algae, Cyanobacteria in Ponds/Aquariums

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