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Use of RO, DI, Softwater in Aquariums
By Carl Strohmeyer-PAMR 35+ years experience
INDEX of this article:
While the use of Reverse Osmosis and/or De-ionized water has been around for quite some time, their use has exploded of late, often for good reasons, but unfortunately there is a lot of miss-information about how these systems work (including in a popular YouTube video) and gimmicky products that over sell the less experienced aquarium keeper.
I have used both types of equipment over the last few decades, and this includes variations within such as the use of Cellulose acetate membranes which are the oldest form of commercial RO membranes, yet still used along with lower quality TFC membranes, in most RO and RO/DI combinations to keep the price MUCH lower!
Re-mineralization after use of RO and/or DI water and essential minor and trace elements/minerals is also discussed.
I also address the use of water that has passed through typical home/office water softeners and why the use of such water poses a serious long term threat to ANY fish' health.
RO (REVERSE OSMOSIS) AND/OR DI (DI-IONIZED) SYSTEMS FOR AQUARIUMS
RO/Reverse Osmosis water is simply water that is run under pressure through a micron pre-filter, then a carbon pre-filter & finally a osmonic membrane.
For reef keepers, these are often a must and at a cost of just pennies per gallon, often well worth the investment over paying .25 cents per gallon. For Discus keepers and similar biotope aquarium RO or RO/DI units can also be helpful.
The membrane is the most expensive part of a RO unit and is rated in gallons per day (gpd).
With water that is too hot or cold (the ideal operating temperature is between 70-80 F or 21-27 C), along with low water pressure (psi), and high TDS (total dissolved solids) all will combine to slow the rated capacity of a RO Unit & membrane. High TDS will also affect the life of the membrane.
Often the pressure provided by the tap water is adequate, however with high capacity RO Units additional boost pumps are required (usually units over 100 gpd which require 65 to 80 psi).
The few top quality aquarium RO units still produced use TFC Medical Grade (thin film composite, sold by Pentair USA) membranes which is much better for removal of ammonia, phosphates, herbicides, pesticides, and TDS.
Other units still utilize the popular Economy TFC membranes sold by Dow under the Trade Mark of FilmTec. This includes the Coralife, which I have considerable experience with along with Bulk Reef Supply & many others.
The other common type is the CTA, a.k.a. the cellulose triacetate membrane (also sold by Dow & others) which is used in low cost RO units commonly sold by discounters such as Amazon. Cellulose acetate membranes are the oldest form of commercial RO membranes and the lowest cost to produce, hence the much lower costs of systems utilizing these.
For those thinking they may have gotten a good deal on a RO system that claims to use a TFC membrane, I will remind readers of basic economics and that is while many sellers will price a system low to get a customer and then make the money on parts (think about the cost of HP printers, then the cost of replacement ink), if the replacement parts are at or near the cost of a top quality TFC membrane, then you do NOT have a unit/system utilizing a top quality membrane.
I have used many different RO units and the the results (before passing through a DI chamber) in higher waste water, higher TDS and other measurable aspects such as GH are notable.
Below is a screen-shot from the manufacture/distributor order web site of the cost a retailer will pay for these items Pentair membranes. If the replacement retail price is at or near these prices, then unless it is a clearance item, it is not a high quality TFC membrane (simple economics 101):
I, along with the person who purchased my aquarium maintenance, research, and design company have used the Coralife RO and RO/DI systems. While they claim to use the TFC, our results were not the same as with other units that cost considerably more for the membrane, which again brings up the argument that I can purchase wholesale a 100 GPD Coralife membrane for $25 (or less) but the better Pentair USA medical grade membrane used by several high end RO and RO/DI systems have a wholesale cost of $50.
Keep in mind too that FilmTec is a Dow Trademark and does NOT mean this is a TFC Membrane or if it is, the best TFC since price determines quality here.
The Filmtec can be either the TFC or CTA. The Dow Economy FILMTEC FT30 Membranes are TFC, however many models are not, so make sure to do your homework and apply common sense logic as per economics whether it is the CTA, TFA or a better medical grade TFC such as the Pentair USA TFC Membrane.
Example Reference: Filmtec Cellulose Triacetate Membrane
A test of an RO or RO/DI system/filter is if the reject water is higher than three gallons of water for every one gallon I would question the quality of the membrane used. This can result in concentration of ammonia as I have noted in experiments in the past.
Also be aware that CTA membranes lower permeability requires higher pressures so booster pumps may be needed for optimum efficiency.
This is especially true if you use a RO system that uses twin membranes as a way to increase output while keeping the purchase cost lower than would be the case with a higher GPD membrane. Even with a TFC membrane (regardless of membrane quality), I do not advise twin membrane systems as this increases the pressure needed to run the system, often complicating the system or lowering efficiency if a booster pump is not added.
Both membranes are damaged by chlorine, which is one reason for the carbon pre-filter (canister).
The membrane should be changed every 2-3 years or 12,000-18,000 of total water produced (whichever occurs first).
A properly functioning membrane will work effectively after a 2-3 gallon break-in (throw this water out), after this initial start up, you should have 1 gallon of "good" water for every 3 gallons of reject water. If higher, this can concentrate molecules that the RO membrane cannot remove (which is why spending a few extra $$ for a good RO unit such as the TMC designed specifically for aquarium use is worth it, not looking for the best deal via eBay, Amazon, or popular Aquarium Supply discounters).
RO System Product Resource: Tropic Marine Centre V2 Pure Reverse Osmosis System using Pentai USA Membranes
TDS Monitor Resource: TMC Total Dissolved Solids Monitor
Generally speaking, a well maintained RO unit will reject about 97%+ of TDS.
DI SYSTEM OR COMPONENT OF RO/DI SYSTEM/FILTER:
*DI Unit; which stand for "De-Ionized".
Most commercially available DI units are simply a RO unit with an additional DI canister/chamber following the RO membrane (API makes a basic DI only unit though). This chamber utilizes resins that further remove TDS from water.
With this system, you can achieve 0 mineral cations and a TDS of 0 after starting with tap water over 250 TDS, while this same tap water run through a RO only unit would generally result in about 7 TDS at most with a quality RO only system.
You will also achieve a pH of 7 since a DI unit or chamber affects ionization where as a RO by itself does not.
For my purposes I found that a well designed TFC (thin film composite) RO only unit was/is more than adequate, however if you are making water for extremely sensitive purposes (such as a car battery), or have high ammonia levels in your tap water, a DI/RO unit may be the better choice for you over a RO only unit.
The reason is much of what the additional DI chamber/resin removes is mineral cations as well as all charged molecules (electrolytes).
Which is why DI water is better for a car battery, but these few mineral cations missed by RO only units are not a problem for any freshwater or saltwater aquarium (unless run off from a Home/Office Water Softener) and in fact these ions are generally beneficial.
As well the operating costs of DI chambers are very high as I have had to replace the resins in these chambers as frequently as once per week with some units under high use.
Another alternative is the "API Tap Water Filter" which is nothing more than a large disposable de-ionization resin filter with built in carbon and filter floss. With this filter you basically throw way 90% of the filter when exhausted.
This filter does not utilize any other chambers or RO membranes of any type.
The API Tap Water De-Ionization Filter is a very economical way to purchase such a filter, but very expensive long term. I have used these and found the chamber is only good for about 100 gallons of water, which is not a bad deal for a Betta keeper desiring to mix pure water or cut their tap water, but it makes little sense for a Reefer, Discus Keeper, or Planted Aquarium Keeper that needs volumes or water.
The bottom line is to NOT believe the some of the hype some sellers of Four to Six Stage RO/DI units put forth and save your money (both initially and ongoing) and purchase a QUALITY TFC RO only water system which WILL result in 0 phosphates, 0 nitrates, and chloramines along with very low TDS readings with less reject water and lower operating costs.
I will also state that these Four to Six Stage RO/DI systems are certainly not bad either, only that why spend the money, including ongoing DI resin replacement for a good RO/DI system when a better RO system is all you need??
There is a good reason some of these 4-6 stage RO/DI units can be sold at prices comparable to or even lower than top quality TFC 3 stage RO systems and and this is the use of (consider these points before falling for the gimmicks):
- Double membranes to make up for upgraded membrane sizes,
- Lower quality carbon (instead of catalytic carbon),
- Use of CTA or less than medical grade TFC membranes,
- Simply poor designs (very common) that do not optimize water pressure/flow resulting in a lower effectiveness, even if a good membrane is used!!!
One example that that not all RO and RO/DI systems are generic containers as is often incorrectly stated:
What you will get is a long term higher operating cost since replacement resins are not cheap, and again in most aquarium applications, not necessary as per my own long term and extensive use and testing!
As noted earlier, another test of an RO or RO/DI system/filter is if the reject water is higher than three gallons of water for every one gallon I would question the quality of the membrane used. This can result in concentration of ammonia as I have noted in experiments in the past.
Often these economy RO/DI systems sold by popular discounters will have higher reject water.
There are really only two MAYBE reasons to purchase a unit that also features de-ionization:
- If your tap water has high ammonia or is in a municipality that uses chloramines (such as some SW USA locations). An expensive to operate DI chamber are often are only good for about 50 gallons and make little difference for chloramines if well designed (some of the cheap Amazon/eBay units are not).
If the RO unit is well designed using quality catalytic carbon (such as the TMC models), the fact is these will remove chloramines.
*Removing Chloramines from Water
* Catalytic Carbon for Chloramine Removal
- You want to run your system directly off from a home or office water softener that uses sodium chloride or potassium chloride, since these systems radically alter the mineral ions in ways detrimental to fish and invertebrates (reference section about use of home water softeners later in this article).
The use of an RO system only will not remove much of the sodium ions that can be detrimental to your aquarium health (which includes osmotic function of fish).
In fact this is a case where by the use of an RO/DI system, operating costs would actually be lower than an RO only that is run off from tap water or well water.
This is another aspect of misinformation is what is removed by a particular component of an RO or RO/DI system. This misinformation is even spread by one of the largest sellers online of large RO/DI systems that are often not necessary for aquarium use, both freshwater and salt water, but based on this misinformation, many are unfortunately convinced that they need these additional components.
This list below is based on a properly functioning RO/DI system, as often additional modules of water purification are needed if one module/component does not completely remove undesirable elements of input water such as nitrates.
- Sediment/Micron Pre-Filter;
The main purpose of this chamber/component of a RO/DI system is to remove sediments such as rust from the water.
From my experience, these sediment filters generally range from 1 to 20 micron in pore size.
These should be changed frequently to maintain pressure for the rest of the unit as well as extend the life of the membrane. How often you need to change it can vary greatly.
What my experience has shown me that changing of the micron cartridge has little bearing on the life of the resin in a the DI chamber (if a DI chamber is even used).
If the water coming in to the RO or RO/DI system contains a lot of sediment such as rust or large sediment particles, multiple stages or better; a separate sediment system is best added (rather than make the mistake of purchasing multiple stages of filtration after the sediment filter).
Adding a 20 micron pre-filter (purchased at Home Depot, etc.) to your existing RO system can help considerably. Or even better, adding a whole house system such as this one to remove rust, iron, etc.:
The above is a more cost efficient solution when one is looking long term at water that is high in TDS and sediment rather than the 6 stage or larger RO/DI systems sold by popular aquarium supply retailers that do not properly address the cause of such issues with stepped down micron filters
- Carbon Filter;
When a good quality catalytic carbon filter block is part of your RO system, it removes many chemicals, toxins, chlorine and YES chloramines assuming a quality catalytic carbon filter block is used in the system.
Unfortunately this aspect is missed in a popular YouTube video promoting more elaborate systems
- Reverse Osmosis (RO) Membrane;
I have already gone into great detail what makes a good membrane, so I am going to assume an optimum quality membrane here.
The main purpose of the membrane is removal of mineral salts, which at the proper water pressure and temperature an optimum membrane is VERY efficient at doing.
This same membrane can also remove most nitrates and ammonia. In fact my own tests over the years showed 100% removal of nitrates.
However some claim nitrates can get through, but this again falls back partly to the membrane used, as my results varied with systems such as the Coralife RO system using the FilmTec membrane which is also used in many popular RO/DI systems, did in fact leave some residual nitrates while the TMC V2 system had 0 nitrates.
I should note that these results may also be part of the system design too such as how the system maintains water pressure to the membrane.
It should also be noted that any membrane is only as good as the sediment and carbon pre-filters.
The picture to the right shows how a properly functioning RO membrane rejects sodium ion while allowing water molecules to pass.
- De-Ionized (DI) Module/Chamber;
A DI resin chamber traps all charged molecules passing through it, and leaves uncharged (neutral) molecules free to pass through.
Water, for example, passes through it, as would other uncharged inorganic molecules such as oxygen (O2). Ions and minerals salts missed by the carbon & some RO membrane such as sodium (Na+), copper (Cu++ or Cu+), ammonium (NH4+), phosphate (PO4---), silicate (Si(OH)3O-), and acetate (CH3CO2-) generally get caught (assuming the resin is not depleted).
The result is usually pH neutral water unlike the water coming from even the best of RO only systems.
The DI resin chamber can also be a good back up from nitrates, chloramines, and in particular ammonia/ammonium missed by the earlier chambers.
Reverse Osmosis/Deionization Systems to Purify Tap Water for Aquaria
Removing Chloramines from Water
This can be an economical DIY project or there are commercial water distillers also available.
If you are making a DIY Water Distiller, make sure to use condensation collection coils & other related surfaces that will not add elements back into the water, especially copper coils (which can defeat the purpose of the water distiller).
Some plastics can also add chemicals back into your water, generally stainless steel is accepted to be the best surface to use for condensation collection. Please click on the picture to enlarge
Do NOT use 100% RO water unless you are an advanced fish keeper with time on your hands, which includes having GH and KH Test Kits/Strips, as well as some basic knowledge or aptitude of chemistry.
Generally the use of RO or DI water in freshwater aquariums should be restricted to blending with tap or well water so as to "Cut" the water resulting in lower buffers and hardness of aquarium for use with Amazon River, Southeast Asia (such as Bettas), or similar fish.
Generally I start with 25% RO water and work up from this over time (if necessary).
The reason is that RO and similar water is NOT properly mineralized for correct osmoregulation with essential minerals such as calcium nor is there any carbonate buffers to maintain a stable pH which the lack there of would result in a roller coaster pH in the aquarium, often with disastrous results.
That said, for advanced freshwater fish keepers who desire exact Amazon River or SE Asia aquariums (or even Goldfish, Livebearers, etc.);
The use of 100% RO water can achieve phenomenal results providing all trace and major minerals as well as buffers are replaced (buffers are very often missed with users of 100% RO Water).
The reason is that you can reproduce the exact water conditions you desire (assuming again you are familiar with water chemistry), without starting from a point of incorrect minerals or even high nitrogenous organic compounds such as Nitrates (which are often found in tap water or well water).
Everything you need to know about water chemistry:
With Marine Reef Aquariums, since most better salt mixes are exacting in their mineral and trace element blends, the use of RO water provides for better results.
More importantly, topping off for evaporation in marine aquariums with tap water (even fish only tanks), results in climbing nitrates, sometimes falling alkaline reserve, incorrect usable calcium levels, and more. So the use of RO or DI water is often a must in marine aquariums for evaporation from my experience.
Correct use of RO Water:
First, if small amounts RO Water (under 25-50%) is used to "Cut" hard/alkaline tap/well water, often only electrolytes with mild buffers already added such as SeaChem Replenish is all that is necessary, not strong buffers or baking soda.
For those considering using RO or DI water in higher amounts, it is important to note that for proper osmotic function trace amounts of several minerals are required.
Many of these supplied simply by water changes and supplements such as Wonder Shells.
For this reason pure RO (Reverse Osmosis) or Distilled water are not good for water changes unless re-mineralized (with products such as Replenish, Wonder Shells, and Buffers) or blended with tap or well water that is possibly too high in many minerals (a very high GH over 500 ppm can slow respiration in some freshwater fish).
*Please note that the above SUGGESTED Ratios are based on 100% pure water and in most instances the water used is not, especially if the Water is from a RO Filter that is not serviced regularly, or is simply a poor quality RO Filter (often one intended for human use, not aquarium use).
The bottom line is to start with these ratios, then adjust the rations until desired parameters are met; then write down these rations and use them in the future.
*As well as noted this is for low pH/softer water aquariums!!
For goldfish, livebearers, or even general community tanks, the use of Malawi Buffer (or Marine Buffer) is advised. Also the use of Acid Buffer as a counter buffer for equilibrium is generally not necessary.
*Do NOT use these ratios to adjust well, tap, blended, or established aquarium water!!
For this you need to add buffers as per aquarium parameters and then find a "Sweet Spot" where your aquarium maintains the desired parameters without a pH roller coaster. This often takes small doses until this is achieved.
*Finally these ratios are based on a starting measurement as per your tank size & suggested amount as per the buffer used (see your product instructions).
In other words if for your size aquarium 1 teaspoon is required of a certain buffer this becomes "1 Part" and then you would use 1/2 teaspoon if ".5 Part" of a counter buffer is also called for.
Adding Blended, RO, or RO/DI back to the Aquarium (Water Changes)
Once your KH, GH, pH, TDS, etc. are where you want these parameters, you water is reading for adding back to the main aquarium. A 32 gallon RubberMaid or similar trash can works for adjusting these parameters prior to addition after a water change (clean first with salt water before using).
If you are looking to have a flow through system, evaporation top off, or similar, I still suggest adjusting in this separate container, then pumping either slowly or quickly from this container.
I personally used two containers, one for simply filling slowly with RO water, then the next one is where I move this water to adjust and/or blend. I move the water to the second container when it is nearly empty, this way I have a constant filling of the first container while the second container is adjusted, then used.
This method still works well if the second barrel is used in a "constant slow water change". I would simply turn off the slow or demand pump while adjusting the water, then back on when complete (which should not take long).
Products that can aid in re-mineralizing RO water (many can be/should be used with other products for complete re-mineralization that includes carbonates)
Basic Electrolyte Replenishing Products (& Links):
Similar to Kent RO Right and API ElectroRight as a primary trace element/electrolyte replenishing product, although this product does add some buffers. Because of the mineral salts contained in this product, it is a good choice in particular for use in softer water aquariums as it does not as readily raise hardness. Replenish has very little affect on pH.
I recommend using this product to add to RO/DI water whether used in full or to "cut" tap/well water. Use the directed amount for the amount of RO or DI water used, not the full gallonage of the aquarium.
*Kent RO Right;
This is for basic trace elements, electrolytes, this product does NOT add most necessary buffers and most major minerals that are especially necessary for general freshwater fish tanks, especially livebearers, African Cichlids, and Goldfish.
*Aquarium Pharmaceuticals Electro Right;
As with Kent RO Right, this is for basic trace elements, electrolytes, this product does not add most necessary buffers and most major minerals that are especially necessary for general freshwater fish tanks, especially livebearers, African Cichlids, and Goldfish.
KH Buffers & GH/Mineral Additive Products (& Links):
*SeaChem Alkaline Buffer and SeaChem Acid Buffer
These to products above are for balanced carbonate/bicarbonates for correct KH & pH.
These are generally used for planted or low pH/soft water aquariums.
*SeaChem Malawi Buffer (or SeaChem Marine Buffer);
This would be the buffer of choice (used as directed) for Livebearers, Goldfish, African Cichlids, and similar higher pH/KH fish. I suggest using 1/2 the recommended amount in your RO water prior to addition to your aquarium then add to this until the desired KH is reached.
*SeaChem Cichlid Salt
Similar to SeaChem Buffer along with added sodium chloride salts
*Wonder Shells An important compliment mineral replenisher; mixes well with Electro Right, Replenish, RO Right, SeaChem Buffer or the similar but much less easy to use, SeaChem Equalibrium.
The Wonder Shell is an excellent compliment to follow up with Replenish or other initial RO Water Electrolyte additives, so as to constantly maintain essential mineral cations.
I recommend to use 1/4, 1/2, or a normal size Wonder Shell based on the type of aquarium kept & mineral needs. This goes for 100% RO/DI regenerated water, RO/DI cut water or 100% tap/well water.
Similar to Replenish, Wonder Shells or AragoMight, but with much more emphasis on Potassium and thus planted aquariums.
In most cases I have found this product NOT the better choice when compared to the use of Replenish along with 1/4 to 1/2 dose of Wonder Shells. WHY? My extensive use of Equilibrium has not achieved as good of results, even in planted aquariums since it does not maintain the mineral Cations required in a closed system nor is it as useful for RO water use. I realize that that other professionals have a difference of opinion with me here, but I stand by my results and have always used & sold what I had the best results with, so while I really like SeaChem products and think this too is a good product, I have had better results using Wonder Shells, which is why I currently no longer sell this product.
These products can be used separately or together.
The API ElectroRight, Kent RO Right only adds important trace minerals and no carbonates and is usually inadequate by itself.
I generally would soak a Wonder Shell in RO water and then add Buffers (often both acid and alkaline for correct balance) or Cichlid or Marine Salt to further replenish major and minor elements as well as carbonates (as Wonders Shells have little carbonates).
Drinking Water/ Rain Water;
Also be real careful with water label “Drinking Water” (products such as Aquafina are simply RO water that has some minerals added for flavor for human consumption) as this is usually just RO water with a few minerals added for taste and does NOT have the electrolytes needed by fish. Usually pure spring water does have the proper electrolytes needed by fish.
I have seen many (especially on the internet) recommend rain water be used in place of tap water or similar, the reasoning is similar as with RO water that this water is more pure and therefore more healthy for the fish.
HOWEVER this reasoning is severely and dangerously flawed as rainwater generally has little or NO essential minerals for osmoregulation and as well as buffering capacity at all for maintaining a stable pH (rainwater tends towards the acid side on the pH scale) which will result in a rollercoaster pH in the aquarium.
Please note that the pH scale is logarithmic meaning a 1 point change up or down is equal to a tenfold increase in acidity/alkalinity.
Reference: Aquarium Chemistry; pH
Softened Water; Home/Office Water Softeners Use:
Home (or office) water softeners that employ salt (either sodium chloride or potassium chloride) should NOT be used for supplying aquarium water, as these strip most important minerals all the while increasing sodium to very high and out of balance levels (sodium is only required in trace amounts for most fish). The sodium that is present continues to strip ESSENTIAL calcium and other mineral ions. Running an RO system after a home water softener will not solve the problem of these odium ions.
This can severely affect osmoregulation in fish, especially many fish such as Loaches that normally prefer more soft water.
However these same softwater fish do not prefer soft water containing an unbalanced mineral content that is high in sodium but missing other essential mineral ions, which water from a home softener would be, regardless of whether you add back minerals such as the use of a Wonder shell or not!
The use of soft water from sources that utilize sodium OR EVEN from aquarium conditioners that have sodium bases is that the sodium often drives out the essential mineral cations.
The proof is the ability to maintain a good KH, however an un-naturally low GH often results.
One such test I conducted showed a KH of 200 ppm while the GH was only 20 ppm.
A review of Aquarium Water Conditioners:
Aquarium Conditioners, Information
The result is nearly NON-existent ESSENTIAL calcium, magnesium, and other positive mineral ions.
This can have severe affects on all fish, but is an ESPECIALLY noteworthy problem in Goldfish, Livebearers, and Rift Lake Cichlids!!
Another aspect is that softened water contains enough sodium to actually irritate a fish' epidermis, which in particular is harsh for scaleless or smooth scale fish (such as Loaches, many Catfish, Eels, Elephant Nose, and Ghost Knife Fish).
Although likely obvious to most saltwater aquarium keepers, the use of water softener water should NEVER be used for mixing saltwater or topping off a marine aquarium for evaporation.
Here is how a home or office water softener works:
When the resin becomes saturated with calcium and magnesium, it is regenerated by passing an NaCl or KCl brine solution through the resin. The high concentration of sodium ions in the brine causes the reaction to be reversed with sodium (or potassium if KCl is used) replacing the calcium and magnesium ions which are then discharged into the waste water.
This sodium or potassium that is used to drive out mineral Cations of calcium and magnesium remain in the water, even if in small amounts. These sodium ions are enough to continue to drive out a considerable amount of essential mineral Cations so that simply adding these back via SeaChem/AAP Replenish, AAP Wonder Shells, etc. results in precipitation of these essential electrolytes.
Simple tests with an AAP Wonder Shell bear this out as the Wonder shells dissolves in a pile of dust, but never actually changes the water chemistry!
Here is the equation/formula:
From Original Article:
Do Fish Drink; Osmoregulation in Fish
Here are a few necessary TRACE elements/minerals (electrolytes) and their function.
- Calcium (Actually needed in more than trace amounts): Calcium helps to transport ions (electrically charged particles) across the membrane, is essential for muscle contraction, calcium assists in maintaining all cells and connective tissues in the body, and much more.
Please read for more about Calcium:
Aquarium Chemistry; Calcium
- Sodium (Actually needed in more than trace amounts which is why water from home water softeners should NOT be used): Regulates extra-cellular electrolyte, essential for the transport of nutrients across the cell membranes.
- Potassium: Regulates intracellular osmotic pressure, cell membrane potential, and salt excretion.
- Phosphorus: Energy metabolism.
- Molybdenum: Important for proper skeletal growth (very important in reef aquariums for hard coral growth).
- Manganese: Aids enzymes involved in metabolism, growth and maintenance of bone and cartilage.
- Iron: Oxygen transport in blood and muscle tissue.
- Magnesium: As stated previously, magnesium plays a role in the activity of more than 325 enzymes and aids in the proper assimilation of Calcium.
- Sulfates: Also as stated above, improve nutrient absorption and toxin elimination.
- Chromium: Important for proper utilization of sugars.
- Cobalt: Necessary for Folic Acid synthesis.
- Copper (very trace amounts): Co-enzyme for energy metabolism, aids in the protection of the myelin sheath around the nerves, important for iron absorption and utilization.
For a related post that deals with trace elements:
“Plaster in Paris in Aquariums and Ponds”
It is important to have a proper Redox Potential which describes the ability for the loss of an electron by a molecule, atom or ion to the gain of an electron by another molecule, atom or ion.
Without this reducing Redox Potential many minerals cannot be absorbed and properly assimilated. So it is very important to keep a “positively charged” aquarium or a Balanced Redox Potential via proper dissolved oxygen levels, calcium and other electrolytes, proper cleaning procedures and water changes (UV Sterilization can help too).
For more information about the Redox Potential, please see this article:
*The Redox Potential in Aquariums (& Ponds) and how it relates to proper aquatic health
For further reading on this subject, here are a few articles I recommend:
This one is great Understanding Water Hardness
A little hard to follow (pdf), but good reading:
Interactions of pH, Carbon Dioxide, Alkalinity and Hardness in Fish Ponds
This other Aquarium Answers article is an excellent compliment:
Tap water for my Aquarium or Pond? From Chlorine and Chloramines to Phosphates & TDS
For more aquarium information, please visit this site:
* “AQUARIUM AND POND INFORMATION”
*Sodium Ions: http://www.elmhurst.edu/~chm/vchembook/142Aposion.html
Carl Strohmeyer- Copyright 2017
Other Recommended Reference & Product Sites
Aquarium Information and Resources (Pond too)
Premium Tropic Marin Pro Reef Sea Salt from Germany
There is simply NO BETTER Reef Sea Salt (marine fish too)
NilocG High Growth Liquid Plant Ferts
NilocG Aquatics PROFESSIONAL GRADE planted aquarium liquid fertilizer products. Products designed for persons who want to have a more advanced planted aquarium without the hassles need for a degree in science to do so. Meant for use in "The Estimative Index of Dosing, or No Need for Test Kits" method of planted aquarium aquascaping. Products work for both low light and high light planted aquariums, just different dosages.
*UV Sterilization, Sterilizer Use
The above article is the most in depth and constantly researched/updated article to be found ANYWHERE on the Internet!
TMC Total Dissolved Solids Monitor
An excellent stand alone product for testing your TDS from Tap, well, or even aquarium water.
A must have for any advanced aquarium keeper.
*Ich; Lifecycle, Identification, Treatment, Prevention
AquaRay Ultra Premium Aquarium LED Lights
Highest in PUR, The ONLY LED with an IP67 rating or higher for water proofing along with a full 5 year warranty to back them up! Why purchase brands without this rating such as the Finnex, Current, or Fluval only to be essentially placing an electronic light emitting device over your humid aquarium with little or no guarantee? In the long term, you WILL PAT MORE!
*Pond Care Information
*Aquarium Forum; Everything Aquatic & Aquarium Forum Board
*FISH AS PETS
Fish as Pets contains articles and commentary of Interest to the Aquarium Hobby
API/Rena Filstar High Performance Canister Filters & Parts
Premium Canister Aquarium Filters