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FRESHWATER VELVET - (Piscinoodinium pillulare) & COSTIA (Ichtyobodo Necatrix)


FRESHWATER VELVET - Piscinoodinium pillulare & Similar Chilodonella (also incorrectly known as oodinium which is a similar marine infestation)
Also Information about COSTIA (Ichtyobodo Necatrix)

By Carl Strohmeyer-PAMR 40+ years experience
Updated 7/16/20

Piscinoodinium pillulare, freshwater velvet

Velvet (Piscinoodinium pillulare) is a flagellate parasite with chloroplasts, while ich is a ciliate, both have similar life cycles, but unlike ich, velvet can use its chloroplasts during dormancy to survive (which is where controlling light can help), but in a full blown infestation, the parasites get their nutrients from the host and are NOT dependent on their chloroplasts.

This is an area of some controversy as some old school methods claim light and salt (sodium chloride) will treat and cure velvet.
HOWEVER this has been proven false along with the assumption that this is a parasitic algae (due to having chloroplasts), this too is not true as this is a flagellate protozoan.

This parasite is MORE RESISTANT to higher salt levels than ich (Ichthyophthirius multifilis) and uses the chloroplast to produce nutrients (via chlorophyll and light) when a host is not available or to supplement nutrients derived from the host.
It should also be noted that Marine Oodinium parasites do NOT have chloroplasts.

More Salt in Aquarium Uses:
Aquarium Answers, salt in freshwater aquarium


What Are These Parasites?

freshwater velvet, loach
Piscinoodinium pillulare are flagellate protozoa, single-celled organisms that move around by thrashing their whip like flagella.
There are many species of flagellates that are part of the normal intestinal fauna of fishes, and many more kinds of free-living flagellates make a living in the mucus of fish gills and skin, without attaching themselves or causing trouble, but even some ordinarily harmless ones can become pathogenic in stressed hosts.
Piscinoodinium pillulare is not harmless; it puts down a root like extension and can burrow into the skin or gill tissues.
Giardia lamblia is a similar flagellate protozoa in humans that can cause severe acute diarrhea which may lead to a chronic diarrhea and nutritional disorders.


Fish Velvet Disease magnified
Look for fish that scratch or ‘flash’ their bellies in attempts to scrape their gills against stones or gravel.
Rapid respiration or fish that hide or sink to the bottom and clamp their fins, in classic symptoms of malaise. Velvet moves fast, faster than Ich.
If you're unwary, you may not realize the fish is being attacked by Velvet until it begins to lose its glossy shine and seems to have patches of yellowish to golden-brown or rusty-colored varnish (which is where the term ‘Velvet’ came from). If you turn out all aquarium and room lights and point a flashlight at the fish, this will make Velvet more visible.

Velvet can also settle out in the gills, where it will send down a root like extension into the gill lamella and dissolves cells then absorbs their contents. This causes extreme gill itch and swelling. In really serious infections, the gill cover may also become swollen. Fish can be killed by Velvet in a few days, either directly from suffocation in the Gills or from secondary bacterial infections.

Treatment for both Velvet or Chilodonella:

Copper Sulfate is one of the more effective treatments, as it kills both dormant (destroying the chloroplasts) and kills the free swimming stage as well. However Copper solutions can also be hard on many sensitive fish and when used at therapeutic levels, it can be difficult to purge from the aquarium. As well if the diagnosis is incorrect and the disease is freshwater Ich, Copper solutions while effective for marine versions of Ich is more marginally effective for freshwater versions.
Methylene Blue (this should be used as a medicated bath, buffered with other ingredients, or used in a hospital tank, not as a direct treatment in a display tank) is also very effective and has the added bonus of being a hemoglobin transfer agent for the blood just when the fish need it most.

AAP, Aquatronics Super Velvet Plus AcriflavinAnother effective treatment is Acriflavin (often my first choice), especially when concentrated and combined with NaCl (such as in "AAP Super Velvet Plus"). However for Chilodonella, Acriflavin based medications are somewhat less effective.
To a slightly lesser extent, malachite green and formalin may also be useful.
AAP Super Velvet Plus can also be alternated with AAP Super Ich Plus if you are unsure of the diagnosis. This combination is my first choice, if you are unsure of your diagnosis (or the Medicated Wonder Shell combination below).

AAP Medicated Wonder Shells with AcriflavinThis is why the Medicated Wonder Shells are one of the better treatments for FW velvet.
These medicated blocks contained buffered Copper, Acriflavin and Methylene Blue, three of the better treatments for this infestation along with malachite green. These blocks also add electrolytes and calcium, both essential to good healing.
Medicated Wonder shells can be boosted with a 1/2 dose of ParaGuard, a 1/2 dose of AAP Super Velvet Plus, or 1/2 dose of Cupramine or CopperSafe in difficult cases

Another possible treatment choice is AAP Paracide, which is actually better than Acriflavin treatments for Chilodonella. In fact AAP Paracide is the treatment of choice next to Copper for Chilodonella and the first choice with copper sensitive fish for Chilodonella.
However I have not found this quite as effective for true FW Velvet.

30 minute, twice daily medicated baths using Methylene Blue and possibly one teaspoon of sodium chloride (salt) per gallon are also very helpful for the treatment of Velvet (and related flagellate parasites as well).

For further information about the use of Methylene Blue, please see this article about chemical treatments:
“Aquarium Medications; Chemical Treatments including Methylene Blue”

Back to lighting, this may help with low infestations just like salt does with ich in low infestations, but in a full blown infestation, just like salt, it is overrated.
I have witnessed this first hand in my Aquarium maintenance business, even with lights off!

Velvet Treatment Resources:
*AAP Super Velvet Plus; Acriflavin
*AAP Medicated Wonder Shells
*AAP Super Ich Plus
*AAP Paracide
*AAP Cupramine Copper Treatment from American Aquarium
*AAP MethyBlu; Premium Methylene Blue
*AAP ParaGuard
*AAP Marex
*How to perform a Medicated Fish Bath


Severe Costia Infestation, Discus

Costia (along with related Chilodinella & Trichodina) are single cell microscopic parasites that attacks the skin of fish.
It is a flagellate similar to velvet, however without the chloroplasts. It destroys the skin, in mild cases the skin appears cloudy (again similar to Velvet), in severe cases the skin is open and bleeding. The epidermis (skin) clouds up in in random areas of the fish, then comes off, often leaving bloody patches (although secondary bacterial infections can leave nodules).
This is sometimes referred to as Aquarium or Fish Slime disease by inaccurate & anecdotal aquarium articles such as by However this is EXTREMELY misleading as Streptococcus in fish is actually much more of a milky slime than Costia/Chilodinella/Trichodina are in appearance with totally different treatments too.
Reference: Streptococcus In Fish

Costia usually attacks fish in a poor state of health or living in poor water conditions or in overcrowded conditions. Secondary bacterial and/or fungal infections can occur at the open sore area.

Costia can only survive on fish. As well, Costia usually inhabits the gill and skin and once attached to the host it destroys tissue at that site. This is why when found in the gill, Costia is so devastating, when present in great numbers Costia will destroy gill tissue.

Moderate Costia Infection, under scales

In very small numbers Costia presents little problem (symptoms for minor infections include sloughed off scales), however in poor water conditions Costia can kill rapidly.
Costia can survive in temperatures greater than 86 degrees F.

Mild Costia Infection, similar in appearance to Ich A common symptom of Costia is for "cloudy and milky" patches to appear on the fish.
Costia is often and mistakenly blamed on scratching, flashing and similar in fish, however although fish with a Costia infestation may flash/scratch this is not a very clear sign of a Costia infestation and is more likely early symptoms of velvet, Ich, Shimmies (livebearers, mollies in particular) or simply stress from poor water conditions similar to shimmies which is most often caused by improper mineral/electrolyte levels.

Luckily, if what one thinks is a Costia infestation is actually Velvet, treatment is similar as above for Velvet (although I have found 27% formalin or Quinine Hydrochloride plus malachite green based formulas more effective for Costia and Acriflavin & copper less effective for Costia).

Ich (Ick) Identification and Treatment

Costia is more common in aquariums when fish are under stress (often new fish can present an opportunity for a Costia Infestation).
For true Costia infestations, clean water with good parameters (ammonia, nitrites, nitrates, GH, KH) are a MUST.
This includes maintaining positive mineral ions of calcium and magnesium which in turn maintains a healthy Redox Balance that is so woefully misunderstood by many as to its importance in treatment and prevention of many diseases including Costia.

The Importance of Redox Reduction/Balance for a Healthy Aquariums

The use of medicated baths containing Methylene Blue OR Potassium Permanganate (PP is usually more effective for true Costia versus Velvet).
Then treat the aquarium with either AAP Super Ich Plus, AAP Paracide, or maybe Kordon Rid Ich Plus for moderate to serious infestations.

For mild Costia infestations, Copper Sulfate or Medicated Wonder Shells can work.

Costia Treatments (links/resources):
*AAP Super Ich Plus
*AAP Paracide (Quick Cure Replacement)
*Jungle Clear Water Potassium Permanganate
*SeaChem Cupramine Copper Treatment from AAP
*Medicated Wonder Shells

While some web sites recommend acriflavin and copper for Costia, my tests have shown that these two chemicals are much more effective for Velvet (which are often similar in appearance), while products containing formaldehyde are more effective for Costia.
My suspicion is that those who claim effective treatments for serious Costia infections with either copper or acriflavin actually have a Velvet infestation,


One important note about Costia (& Velvet) from my experience, and while anedotal, it is still worth mentioning and that is I have found the Costia responds best to treatments containing formaldehyde such as Quick Cure or Rid Ich Plus. HOWEVER IF treatments that that are normally effective for Ich infections such as standard Rid Ich, Super Ich Plus, Herbal Ich Attack, etc. that do NOT have formaldehyde or similar aldehydes (although pure formaldehyde is more effective than aldehydes) are failing what you may think is an Ich infestation, this may be Costia.

While the above method of identification is a poorly scientific diagnosis method, I have observed this with clients and their aquariums over the years on many occasions where they thought that they had an Ich infestation and upon my arrival found that it was not the case, rather it was Costia (or occasionally Velvet) and a change in treatment to Quick Cure often achieved immediate results.

It is also noteworthy that Costia resists drying. Empty tanks, nets, even dried nets, scrubbers, and hoses can transmit infective Costia from one tank of fish to another.

Finally Costia can occasionally look like Sporozoa (or vice versa) due secondary bacterial infections common to Costia that then leaves nodules, however the best visual diagnosis of Sporozoa (aka and more correctly known as Apicomplexa) are whitish translucent areas, not caused by slime form on the skin.
Another unfortunate way to often differentiate the two is that Costia is generally easily treated with the above mentioned remedies if caught reasonably early, however Sporozoa is usually fatal and the only reasonably successful remedy is Nitrofurazone, which can be combined with ParaGuard 2 if uncertain what you are treating.

Product Resource: Nitrofurazone (Furan 2)

Resources, References:

Fish Diseases, How to Treat Sick Fish
Fish Diseases | How to Treat Sick Fish

Read this article beginning before ANY fish disease treatment!

*AQUARIUM MEDICATIONS, treatments, how they work, and which ones to use and not to use.

*Aquarium Ich, freshwater, saltwater, Cryptocaryon, Ichthyophthirius multifilis
Aquarium Ich

For information about Saltwater Oodinium (velvet):
*MARINE OODINIUM (Amyloodinium Ocellatum)

Other Recommended Reference/Products Sites

Aquarium Light Information, Help
Aquarium Lighting; Complete Information
Understanding what makes for correct lighting is very important, even for fish only aquariums!

Aquarium or Pond UV Sterilization, Fish Velvet Prevention
UV Sterilization, UVC Sterilizer Use

The use of ultraviolet sterilization is one of the more important tools in aquarium disease prevention and a balanced Redox

*Aquarium UV Sterilizers; TMC, SunSun, more

*UV Replacement Bulbs for Aquarium, Pond, Purifier
The above product reference sells only the best germicidal, hot cathode, low pressure, high output UV Bulbs!

*Everything Aquatic; Aquarium Forum, Member Blog & Forum Board
For a friendly, knowledgeable, aquarium forum with in a family atmosphere.

Submersible Aquarium PowerHead Pump

SunSun HJ-1542; replaces Via Aqua 1300

This pump replaces the Via Aqua 1300 and other copies such as by AquaTop as the Premier Power Head Pump for Aquariums, Ponds, Fountains, Wet/Dry Filters. This pump is submersible with Mag drive & ceramic shaft


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How Usnic acid and Mucilage which are both found in Usnea lichen can be used as effective alternative aquarium and pond fish treatments.

By Carl Strohmeyer-PAMR 40+ years experience
Updated 2/29/20

Usnea Sprig on branch, for aquarium fish and human gram positive bacteria

Scientific name: Usnea barbata.
Usnea is a lichen of the family Parmeliaceae that grows in damp temperate woodlands and contains usnic acid (C18H16O7). I have found it effective for bacterial (some gram negative and most gram positive), fungal and even parasites such as ich.
The other active ingredient (besides usnic acid) is mucilage.

Usnea in forest
As a natural antibiotic it has also proven effective against gram positive bacteria, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis (making Usnea a great alternative to Isoniazid).
Scientists believe that usnic acid works by disrupting cellular metabolism, either by preventing the formation of ATP which is the cells' energy source or by the stopping the action of oxidative phosphorylization. Usnea may also be a better choice than the drug metronidazole (as per human studies) for parasites and anaerobic bacterial treatments in aquariums.

Usnea contains potent antibiotic properties on gram positive bacteria.
As well, the Usnic acid found therein has shown antiviral, anti-protozoal, anti-inflammatory and analgesic (pain killer) activity.

It is also noteworthy that Usnea is edible, with no known toxic side effects from ingestion in animal and human studies and as well is an excellent source of Vitamin C.
In fact some monkeys consume similar lichens as their primary diet. Reference: Golden snub-nosed monkey

More information about Usnea;

Test tube studies have suggested an anti-cancer and an anti-viral activity for usnic acid. This may also make Usnea useful for the hard to treat aquatic viral disease; Lymphocystis (which is usually not fatal in otherwise healthy fish). The human studies can also be transferred to fish for tumors. I personally have not tested this enough as of writing this article, but based on human studies and the few tests I have done, Usnic acid shows promise here.


Here are preliminary results based on my tests and tests on humans or veterinary application that can be extrapolated to fish:


Brewed Usnea tea for treatment
I boil one small sprig (about an adult thumb size) in 6 oz. of water and add this to every 10-20 gallons of water every day until cure is effective +2 days. Make sure to remove the Usnea sprig from the “brewed Usnea tea”, otherwise this will allow the tea/medication to spoil. I also recommend refrigeration after brewing of any unused Usnea brew.

1 tablespoon per 6 oz. of this preparation can also be used for a 1 quart bath as an alternative (This is my preferred Use of Usnea!).

Please see these articles for more about the use of baths for treating fish:
*Fish Baths, Dips, Swabs; For Disease, Ammonia, etc. Treatment
* Aquarium Disease Prevention; Quarantine

I have also simply added sprigs of Usnea to filters or just floated in the aquarium as one would use peat to acidify the water. I measure pH during this time so as to not use to much as to rapidly drop pH.

Please keep in mind that at this point I would consider this an experimental treatment, mostly in actual dose, so ANY positive or negative feedback is welcome, especially as per dosing effectiveness.
As to the actual effectiveness, there is enough evidence in my own trials and even more so in well researched human trials that this can and will be an effective treatment, the most effective dosing amounts is what is still the biggest question at this point.

I will also point out that my results have generally resulted in 25% success, HOWEVER this is from using Usnea as a last resort medication when others have failed, so this is actually relatively good number when that is considered. I will soon start using this more as a "first treatment" especially for gill injuries/infections/inflammation to find more results as to use of Usnea in mode of treatment.
Feedback from a few clients has been better when used as a bath, with often positive results when used for generally gram positive infections or even Fish Tuberculosis (I am not recommending this for human TB, please see a doctor for this).

The only dangers that have been established (in human studies) are in rare cases liver damage, which would make this a poor choice for dropsy.

If interested in some Usnea for your own trials, you can purchase Usnea near the end of this Organic Medications Article:
Aquarium Medications 4; Purchase Usnea

As for related Disease Prevention Suggestions; the use of UV Sterilization is a proven method of fish disease prevention not only due to removal of many water born disease pathogens, but by improving the Redox Balance and thus the Fish' natural immunity.
The key is a properly installed, quality UV Sterilizer, not one of the many Cheapie models such as the AquaTop PFUV-40 Hang On Filter.
With a quality UV such as the TMC Vecton or Advantage UV, it is also imperative to change your UV Bulb every six months for maximum effectiveness.

See these references and product links:

*Aquarium & Pond UV Sterilization
*Quality UV Sterilizers
*TMC Vecton or Advantage UV Sterilizer
*UV Bulb; Replacements

More About Usnea:
What is Usnea?

Other Recommended Reference Sites

*Aquarium Medications Page 1

*Aquarium Lighting Information from A to Z

*Aquarium Filtration; Filter Use Information

*Aquarium Fish Nutrition

FISH AS PETS; News of Interest to the Aquarium Hobby


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Aquarium Heaters; Review, Size, Heater Information

By Carl Strohmeyer- PAMR 40+ years experience

Pro-Heat Titanium IC Heaters
Updated 11/18/19

Aquarium Heaters have come a long way since I first named this article, as many years back there were just the automatic (non pre-set) hang on the back heaters or the submersible glass pre-set (thermostatic) heaters.
Now even in the glass/quartz submersible heaters, they can vary greatly in size and accuracy of the pre-set and variances of 3 degrees Fahrenheit in either direction.

We have Titanium Heaters, Digital Heaters, as well as the popular relatively newer heater type; the under-gravel or “Mini” heater that has no temperature controls at all, and are simply meant to raise the ambient temperature in a Betta bowl or similar.

The above stated, the proper, correct use remains basically the same, so please read the entire article, including potential "heater Problems".

As for heating requirements, I recommend 25 watts of heater for every 10 degrees of ambient temperature per 10 gallons you need to raise your aquarium temperature.
EXAMPLE: If your home is 68 degrees and you have a 40 gallon aquarium, to reach a temperature of 78 degrees you would need a 100 watt heater.

Often when heater problems occur it is due to the heater being of the improper wattage to meet heating requirements of an aquarium in the location it occupies. Too high a wattage can result in rapid temperature rises that can result in cooked fish if you make adjustment mistakes.

The above formula is a VERY accurate guide and I have used this formula for many years with no issues of under or over heating. In fact I have often witnessed less than honest retailers tell a customer that (for example) they need two 300 watt heaters for their 125 gallon aquarium when in reality ONLY ONE is required for the average room that is kept at 68 degrees during the cooler hours (usually at night while asleep).
So PLEASE be careful with stores or web sites that try and over sell you as to your heater needs as this can actually be problematic in case of a rare malfunction.

Also, if your room is warm (such as in summer months) you may end up with aquarium temperatures higher than your settings (example: a room that is 85 will keep an aquarium at 85 even if your heater is set at 78 F).

It is important of all heaters, regardless of type to maintain good circulation around the heater for the best results for temperature control and accuracy. I have used (& even designed my own) heater modules for in-line heater applications and I will be the first to admit these do not properly dissipate the heat, especially with titanium heaters.
Even though I really like the durability of Titanium Heaters, these types of submersible aquarium heater are best used inside the main display aquarium where the heat will dissipate more rapidly than in a sump or similar enclosed space. I have witnessed Titanium Heaters (of different brands) over heat and burn out when used in small sumps or heater modules. I recommend using a glass or quartz submersible heater in sumps or similar as glass submersible heaters do not seem to be as sensitive to this problem.

Another point is often when the ambient temperature is more than 25° F (14° C) under the desired temperature, the use of two appropriately sized* heaters often works better from my experience.
*By appropriately sized, I mean using the above cited formula.

As well, on the "top end", aquarium heaters are designed only for a top temperature of 90° to 95°F (32° to 35°C), so attempting to heat any higher will likely result in failure and even damage to the to heater.




All heaters eventually fail, however how catastrophic this failure might be can be limited by correct use and correct information.
For me with literally 1000s of aquariums under my care, I can think of only two times a heater malfunction was catastrophic!! So my point is heater failure need not be a major concern if properly installed, maintained, etc.

HOWEVER we have a popular discount online reef and general aquarium supply outlet allegedly misinforming aquarium keepers in one of their videos (about fish feeding) that heater malfunction is one of the top two reasons for total aquarium failure.
This sadly shows a total lack of experience or use of mentoring by these persons (I myself was mentored by many & still am), but worse IMHO is this is irresponsible to scare aquarium keepers WITH SUCH BAD INFORMATION!

This has led to another popular concept of late, heater controllers.
My question though is WHY?
Is the aquarium keeper purchasing a heater that is so inaccurate that this is the only way to keep a heater working correctly?
The facts are that even the best of heaters have some variances, but these are quickly figured out thus requiring a slight change in setting of the pre-set number. Example setting the heater at 78F results in 76F, so turning the heater up slightly to 80F keeps it at 78F; PROBLEM SOLVED!

Now if the reason for this controller is because of use of a heater in a separate module, this will only address the poor temperate regulation issue of using such a component creates, it does not address the aspect that these shorten an aquarium heater's lifespan due to poor circulation.
If the reason for using these controllers is to prevent catastrophic over heating, well I already addressed this incorrect assumption for a properly installed heater. Most failures, by a large margin, result in the heater simply ceasing function, so is the controller going to rush out and purchase you a new heater???

In the end, this so-called new new idea/trend strikes me as another version of the must have a RO/DI system over a good RO only system shilling myth to part you from your money.

By following some bullet points, catastrophic failures should be a VERY rare occurrence.

PRESET HEATERS; Thermostatic (Analog) Submersible Glass or Quartz Heaters:

Aquarium heaters, pre-set, automatic, glass submersible, titanium The Thermostatic or Preset Heater has a built in analog thermostat (or a remote sensor, as is common in many titanium aquarium heaters).
These heaters may use a thermostat, usually monitoring the impedance of a thermistor (a resistor used to measure temperature changes in the aquarium, relying on the change in its resistance with changing temperatures), OR the potential across a thermocouple (a temperature sensor used to measure electric potential difference).

As noted at earlier, most Pre-Set Submersible Glass Heaters have some variances, however that said the biggest difference between different brands is not this variance, but in quality of durability, price, and even manufacture return policies.
I have used MANY different heaters over the years in my service business (the numbers are literally in the 1000s) and what often happens is the heater either ceases to work or the variance becomes greater. As well, many of the name brand Heaters are often no better with this than others.

An example would be the excellent Hagen Tronic Heater, which is an excellent and durable heater, but it is more costly than the Via Aqua, SunSun or other lesser known brands of often equal or even better quality.
Another problem I have found is that some excellent heaters such as the Ebo Jager have difficult return policies whereby I could not accept a customer return directly to me, rather I had to send these directly to their manufacturer all the while the customer was without their heater. This is the reason I ceased recommending these heaters for my clients (not because of frequent quality issues; but lets face it, even the best heater fails occasionally).

Recommended Quality Heater Product Resource:
Aquarium Heaters

There are many models of aquarium heaters available today that are available preset or with a temperature gauge on the side of the heater or on the control knob to help the aquarist set the temperature, most all of these heaters are completely submersible as well.
These Submersible Thermostatic Heaters should be kept under water or NO higher above water than the minimum water line mark that most of these heater have, generally about 2-4 cm below the top of the heater. There is some confusion that these heaters cannot be submerged totally, however I have never used or found a brand of Pre-set thermostatic glass/quartz submersible heater that this is a problem.

The aquarist should allow the heater to adjust to water temperature for 30 minutes before plugging in this type of heater to allow the thermostat to adjust. Use these settings on the dial as a guide to make fine adjustments, as they should NOT be depended upon for total accuracy.
Though some manufacturers make other claims, these gauges are at best accurate within two or three degrees Fahrenheit (one to one and a half degrees Celsius), and sometimes get less accurate over the life of the heater.
An aquarist should ALWAYS CHECK their heater for accuracy and not assume that because it is set at 78 F, it will stay at 78 F.

Pre-set Temperature Numbers:
It is not un-common for even the best of these heaters to be off from their “pre-settings” by a few degrees (sometimes several degrees). This does not have any bearing on how reliable the heater will be once set, only the starting point.
So for instance if your pre-setting takes a setting of 74 F to maintain 78 F (& 78 is what you desire), you should use the setting of 74 F.
Some heaters (such as older Ebo Jager heaters), had NO MARKINGS on the protected heater dial; you simply let the heater adjust to water temperature, then turn until the light comes on and make adjustments from there until your desired temperature is maintained. My personal opinion is this is a better method, but most persons like the preset numbers, despite these flaws, so most manufacturers have these settings.

I would recommend turning off all heaters when water is to be changed that would expose any part of the heater sensors or heating elements (which is usually most water changes).
I recommend waiting at about 10 – 15 minutes for water and heater temperatures to equalize before re-starting a heater after a water change

For Further Reference:
Aquarium Cleaning; Basic Steps

Submersible Heater Brand Suggestions:

I have been asked this question many times, so I will include my observations of common submersible heater brands.
Please note that while this is obviously subjective; with the many brands I have literally used and dozens if not 100s of each brand, I have had a reasonable amount of experience in this subject.
All three of these suggested heaters have accuracy that are more than good enough for most aquarium applications (+/- 1-2 F). In fact, the accuracy with these (and likely some others not listed here) is very close to many heater including Titanium that cost considerably more.

These suggestions are based on my professional use in my aquarium maintenance business going back to 1978 and literally 1000s of aquariums.
A final note is I am only naming those I have had a good experience with, NOT the bad ones!

*Ebo Jager (Eheim); Excellent and very reliable heater. One of the best if not the best.
The only negatives are price and a poor return policy when the rare defective heater does occur that requires the owner to ship directly back to Eheim/Ebo Jager while the aquarium keeper is without a heater for several weeks.
There were some quality issues when manufacturing changed, but this has been corrected according my friends active in the aquarium maintenance industry.

*Via Aqua & SunSun; While not as well known in some parts of North America, this heater IS well known & popular in the Western USA.
This heater is among the best in reliability (the Ebo Jager is likely the only more reliable heater), yet is one of the more affordable with a more gracious return policy when a defective heater does occur.

Product Resource Link:
Via Aqua Submersible Quartz Aquarium Heaters

*Hagen Fluval Tronic Submersible Heater: While I am not a fan of Hagen (in part due to their business practices), I have to admit this heater is darn good.
It is a reliable heater, albeit a little pricey compared to the Via Aqua, but just as reliable and quite accurate.

Generally most manufacturers of quartz/glass and titanium submersible heaters will state in their directions that the heater should be mounted in the aquarium vertically for the reason to keep water from compromising the seal at the top, this is really only a corporate liability statement as most well made glass submersible heaters such as the Via Aqua Glass/Quartz Heaters will be perfectly fine angled to fit in short aquariums or outdoor patio ponds.
I have mounted many submersible heaters for years in a sideways/horizontal mount without a compromise in the seal. This does NOT count for HOB economy automatic heaters which MUST be mounted on the back of the tank vertically.
However I do recommend a vertical aquarium mount whenever possible.


This is more of a sub-type of the glass submersible heater, however the manufactures of the these Digital Aquarium Heaters throw in more extensive digital control circuitry.

A few of the advantages over most glass submersible analog heaters (of which the vast majority of submersible aquarium heaters fall into this category) include:
*Run Dry Safety Shut-Off
*Double insulated heating element
*More accurate temperature control (variances under +- 1.0 F).
*Easy to read display the also displays aquarium temperature (via probe attached to this heater)

*HOWEVER from our use (& our "sister" aquarium maintenance companies), these heaters circuitry (such as the AquaTop) have failed at a much higher rate than the 3% or less that is considered "Good" for electronics.
So my current advice is to AVOID these heaters.

Marineland Stealth Aquarium Heater


A Sub type of the Glass Submersible Pre-Set Heater the plastic resin covered aquarium heater. The Rena “Smart” Heater is a good example of this heater type. It has a low temperature variance with an LED warning alert system that flashes when water is +/- 5º F from set point. As well the SmartHeater works in any position, horizontal or vertical.

Another is the Stealth (by Marineland). This unique submersible glass heater has a hard plastic “Shell” which protects the heater from breakage.
However, please note that my experience with the Marineland Stealth Heaters indicate that they should also not be used in confined spaces or low water volume applications. I have also noticed (in part from feedback from others in the professional aquarium maintenance business) that the Marineland Stealth heater is not as accurate or as durable (generally in low flow applications) as the higher end Via Aqua Titanium Heater or the very high end Pro-Heat II Titanium IC Heaters.

My experience with the other Marineland submersible heater; the “Visitherm” has been worse with LOW accuracy/durability in varied conditions, at least the Stealth is accurate and reasonably reliable in higher flow aquarium placement applications.


Via Aqua Titanium Heaters
Titanium and Remote Sensor Heaters such as the Via Aqua Titanium heater, both the earlier generation analog and next generation digital Titanium.

The advantage to these heaters is three fold;
One is that they tend to be even more accurate by having the sensor far from the heating element.
Two, besides improved accuracy of a remote sensor, the accuracy is further improved by the Digital electronics of the newest generation Titanium Heaters.
Three; the Titanium (and also Stainless Steel) heaters are much more durable and difficult to break especially with large fish such as Oscars.
These heaters also resist breakage due to aquarist mistakes such as leaving them on during water changes or dropping rocks on them (although Titanium heaters still can be damaged by leaving them on during a water change).

I think Titanium Heaters are your best choice for very large aquariums and for aquariums with large and destructive fish such as Arowanas, Oscars or even Turtle tanks (provided there is adequate water volume).

Also if accuracy of temperature control coupled with durability is important, especially with marine aquariums or Discus aquariums, the Digital Titanium is for you.

Titanium Heaters are NOT as good a choice for placing in confined spaces such as sumps, low water tanks (such as Viviariums) or filters such as the ReSun Internal Wet Dry Filter as Titanium heaters tend to easily overheat in confined spaces.
In the case of a sump, the reasons for spending extra for a Titanium heater which are impact resistance and the remote sensor are lost in this small space where the remote sensor is of little advantage and as well no fish are present that might damage a more fragile glass or quartz heater.

Product Resources:
*Via Aqua Next Generation Digital Titanium Heaters
*ReSun Biological Internal Wet/Dry Filter


Hydor ETH In-Line Aquarium Heater The inline aquarium heater has come in and out of popularity in a few variations since at least the 1970s.
One form was the "heater module" in which to place your standard submersible heater inside of this "module". An example is the Lifeguard Heater Module which is the one I used the most; in fact I even designed one many years back to sell and utilize in my aquarium maintenance business.
Of late many other DIY versions have shown up on popular YouTube DIY channels

Another variation is the specific in-line aquarium heater such as the Hydor ETH pictured here to the left.

The third method (more similar to the first) is the use of canister aquarium filters with specific ports in which to place your heater.

This all said, all these methods have one thing in common from considerable use/experience on my part (as well as others who have been in the industry/hobby for some time), and that is these inline heaters often are NOT that accurate and more importantly cause heaters to fail at a much higher rate that more conventional aquarium heating methods.
This is why I stopped selling and making my own heater module as the failure rates and poor heating results were no better with my "invention" than others no matter how much I "tweaked it".

Part of the reason is the confined space does not allow for accurate temperature reading from the heaters sensors. As well this confined space often results in too much heat inside this unit that contains the actual heater/heating element, resulting in overheats and premature heater failure.
The bottom line is although on the surface this may seem like a good idea, in practicality it is a flawed idea that has been doomed to failure in every design I have tried or designed.
Unfortunately as with many already proven failed ideas, this one has once again been resurrected by a popular DIY YouTube channel. I think the problem is we have too many persons coming up with great ideas without any real practical experience, nor any research or willingness to learn from others who have much more practical experience (mentoring IMO is something I allowed myself to do in my early years, but seems to be a lost art from what I have seen and attacks made online).

If you desire this method due to large and destructive fish, consider a Titanium Heater.
If your reason is less equipment in the aquarium, consider placing your heater in a large sump system with much better circulation around the heater.
Of course this option is not possible to the majority of readers, so my suggestion is to simply hide your heater with decor, make sure to have a drip loop for safety, and simply realize that this minor inconvenience of a heater inside your aquarium is better than a failed heater or over heat of your aquarium.

One final issue with in-line heaters if used with an in-line UV Sterilizer, do NOT use together or at the very least use after the UV Sterilizer.
The reason? These heaters are notorious for having hot spots in the water just after the heater than can over heat a UV lamp and considerably shorten life, especially in low flow applications.


Preset Aquarium Heater The Non-Preset or Automatic heater such as the basic Radiant Heater has a very remedial thermostat; or better they have metal contacts that are tightened by turning the dial (metal contacts installed on bi-metal lead, which are brought together with an adjusting screw).
When the heater is "turned up" or tightened, it turns on for longer periods of time. In other words these heaters are “automatic” not thermostatic as they do not go on based on water temperatures, rather the “time” it takes for a contact to “break” due to the tightness of the adjustment.

These heaters need adjustments between summer and winter.
Examples of this heater are the Radiant by Hagen, or even the old Metaframe heaters. Sometimes these heaters are all some aquarists can fit or afford on their tank (although Thermostatic heaters have come down in price a lot), but I have seen many an aquarist cook their fish with these, as subtle changes in the dial often over correct and a sudden ambient warm spell is often not corrected for.

With these heaters it is imperative that the water level is kept up to the proper level as marked on the heater or they may crack, it is also important to check these for seasonal variations (Summer/Winter), as these heaters adjust poorly for these.
These should not be used in a room or garage with wide temperature swings as they will not generally adjust properly. Adjustments with these heaters should be made at no more than 1/8 turn at a time then wait for about two hours before the next adjustment.

As with other heaters it is a good idea to place the heater in the tank and wait for 30 minutes before plugging in (although this is less important with these automatic heaters).
Adjustments should be made very gradually and it is easier to adjust these heaters if you start out at our near the desired temperature, otherwise you may be in for a roller coaster of adjustments.

OTHER AQUATIC HEATING DEVICES; Including Under Gravel Mini Heaters:

As for heating betta in a small tank or bowl, this can be difficult with even the smallest aquarium heaters as they tend to be less accurate in very small volumes of water.

Hydro Aquarium, Bowl Heater
One new method for heating bowls or small aquariums under 5 gallons are the Hydor Mini Undergravel Heaters.
These heaters are completely submersible, easy to hide in mini tanks and bowls and safe even under gravel. There is no controller for this type of heater, instead the Mini undergravel heater simply increases the ambient surrounding temperature a certain number of degrees based on the volume of water.
For example, the Hydor 7.5 watt Mini Heater will increase temperature 5 degrees F (2.5 C) for a 2.5 gallon aquarium.

Product Resource: Hydor Mini Undergravel Heaters

I have used (also for my clients) infrared reptile lamps or infrared heating elements placed in desk lamp over the tanks with the distance set according to the temperature desired (the infrared heating elements are generally more pricey and not worth the extra money for a fish, unlike a reptile).
The distance will need to vary based on ambient room temperature. The nice part about using these reptile infrared lights is that they do not interfere with the day/night cycle of the fish the way a white light or even a blue light will.
These are actually quite accurate when used correctly.


AAP Via Aqua Quartz Heaters
When choosing the right heater you need to factor your budget, tank size, fish size potential, ambient room temperature variation, and temperature sensitivity.
For example: a 10 gallon (35 liter) aquarium with platies and guppies would probably be fine with an inexpensive Automatic Heater, the same for a small Betta Tank. But if this tank was in say a shed where temperatures vary greatly, even this example would be better of with a Preset Submersible heater (for Bettas I have also used infrared reptile lamps in desk lamps to maintain temperature successfully while still allowing day/night cycles).

Another example would be fish such as Oscars; with Oscars I would recommend the stainless steel or Titanium heaters as these fish can get rambunctious.
A third example would be marine fish; marine fish generally are not accustomed to much if any temperature swings so a Preset (thermostatic) heater would also be suggested here.
Finally for any larger aquarium (40 gallon +), a Preset heater just makes more sense in my opinion.

Other Suggested Resources, Products

*Aquarium Information
Well researched and up to date aquarium and pond answers, help, and links

Fish Diseases, How to Treat Sick Fish
Fish Diseases | How to Treat Sick Fish

Aquarium UV Sterilization, sterilizer use, heater information
Aquarium/Pond UV Sterilization

This article covers many aspects of Aquarium & Pond UV Sterilization from how, why, facts, myths, and maintenance including the importance of changing UV Bulbs regularly.

UV Replacement Bulbs
UV Bulbs

As noted above, changing these bulbs/lamps every 6-12 months is essential for a properly functioning UV Sterilizer

*Aquarium Silicone Sealant; USDA 100% Fish Safe
100% Fish Safe, USDA & Agricultre Canada approved.
The same CANNOT be said for Hardware Store brands!!

*Aquarium Lighting Information
Aquarium Lighting

The above article is easily the most in depth and regularly updated on the subject of Aquarium Lighting to be found ANYWHERE on the Internet!

*Columnaris in Aquarium Fish (also Fungus)
As with the "Aquarium Lighting " article, this is easily the most in depth and regularly updated on the subject of Columnaris and Fish Fungus to be found ANYWHERE on the Internet!

*Power Head, & Water Pump Review; Aquarium & Pond
Another article from this website that reviews aquarium water pumps from a professional "hands on" prospective

Economy Aquarium, Fountain Water Pumps
Economy Submersible Aquarium, Fountain Pumps; SunSun JP-033

A better, UPDATED version of the Via Aqua 302 with SUPERIOR Performance, unlike other pumps sold elsewhere as a replacement

*Aquarium Information, Directory

Aquarium Decorations, Decorative Coral, Driftwood, DeCoral, PlantsDecorative Coral
Aquarium Decorations such as:
*Plastic Aquarium Plants
*Aquarium Driftwood

Filstar Aquarium Filter

API/Rena Filstar High Performance Canister Filters & Parts

Premium Canister Aquarium Filters

LED Aquarium Lights, Lighting
LED Aquarium Lights, Lighting

A unique web site with great insights into what determines the best in aquarium LED light fixtures


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Lateral Line Disease in Fish (HLLE)? Lateral Line Functions

By Carl Strohmeyer-PAMR 40+ years experience
Updated 11/1/21

The Lateral Line in Fish as well as Lateral Line Disease or Head and Lateral Line Erosion (HLLE)

Blue Tang with Lateral Line erosion
The lateral line is a sense organ that consists of a row of scales that most fish have along their sides, extending from their head to tail. Under these scales are a system of fluid-filled canals and specialized cells which transmit vibrations to the brain of the fish.
The lateral line helps fish to detect movement and vibration in the surrounding water including predators and prey. The lateral line or similar organs in fish such as blind cavefish (which has rows of neuromasts on their heads) are used precisely to locate food without the use of sight.
Killifish can sense ripples caused by insects struggling on the surface of the water.
Scientific experiments with Pollack Fish have shown that the lateral line is also used for schooling behavior.


Lateral lines are usually visible as faint lines running lengthwise down each side, from the area around the gill covers to the area near the base of the tail. Sometimes parts of the lateral line are modified into electro-receptors (biological ability to receive and make use of electrical impulses), which are organs used to detect electrical impulses.


A Scientist in the 1960s named Sven Dijkgraaf argued convincingly that fish must use their lateral lines to detect water motion. This motion can be generated by the fish, water currents, or by some external moving object.
The lateral line in fish seems to have the ability of detecting the subtle movements of biological sources (prey fish or predator fish, for example) located some distance away. Many scientists believe that fish such as sharks can use these organs to detect magnetic fields as well.



There are receptors in the line, called neuromasts, each consist of a group of hair cells, these cell hairs are surrounded by a protruding cupula (an organ that gives an animal a sense of balance).
Neuromasts may occur singly, in small groups called pit organs, or in rows within grooves or canals, where by these neuromasts are referred to as the lateral line system.

The lateral line system runs along the sides of the body onto the head, where it divides into three branches, two to the snout and one to the lower jaw.
These neuromasts are usually at the bottom of a pit or groove in the fish, which is large enough to be visible.

Skates, rays and sharks usually have lateral-line canals, in which the neuromasts are not directly exposed to the environment, but communicate with it via canal pores.
The hair cells in the lateral line are similar to the hair cells inside the others vertebrates inner ear (such as the cupula in humans where hair cells within the cupula sense rotational acceleration), indicating that the lateral line and the inner ear share a common origin.
Some active fish that are constantly swimming tend to have more neuromasts in canals than on the surface, and the lateral line will be further away from pectoral fins, to reduce the noise generated by fin motion.

The lateral line system, found in many fish, is sensitive to differences in water pressure. These differences are thought to be due to changes in depth or to the current like waves caused by approaching objects.
When pressure waves cause the gelatinous caps of the neuromasts to move, bending the enclosed hairs, the frequency of the nerve impulses is either increased or decreased, depending on the direction of bending.

A swimming fish sets up a pressure wave in the water that is detectable by the lateral line systems of other fish. It also sets up a bow wave in front of itself, the pressure of which is higher than that of the wave flow along its sides.

These near-field differences are registered by its own lateral line system.
As the fish approach an object, such as a rock or the glass wall of an aquarium, the pressure waves around its body are distorted, and these changes are quickly detected by the lateral line system, enabling the fish to turn or to take other actions.
Because sound waves are waves of pressure, the lateral line system is also able to detect very low-frequency sounds of about 100 Hz or less.

An adaptation of the pressure-sensitive system is seen in the modified groups of neuromasts called the Ampullae of Lorenzini (special sensing organs, forming a network of jelly-filled canals), which are found in sharks, rays and a few bony fish.
The Ampullae of Lorenzini are able to detect electrical charges, or fields, in the water.

Most animals, including humans, emit a DC (Direct Current) field when in seawater. This is thought to be caused by electrical potential differences between body fluids and seawater and between different parts of the body. An AC field is also set up by muscular contractions.
A wound, even a scratch, can alter these electrical fields.


Yellow Tang with Lateral Line Disease and fin erosion
Often the lateral line in fish, marine in particular will get infections or degenerate from water conditions. Many believe Marine Head and Lateral Line Erosion is related to Hole in the Head (HITH).

The usual progression in marine fish of MHLLE (Marine Head and Lateral Line Erosion) is usually the development of small pits around the eye and on the head and adjacent area.
As the ailment progresses, the holes grow larger, eventually connecting to become larger lesions, eventually extending back along the fish's lateral line. The fins and gill covering will also often erode in more advanced cases, although MHLLE is seldom fatal.
Yellow Tangs for an unknown reason progress differently; they tend to lose their vibrancy and lighten in overall color, followed fin erosion, usually beginning with the soft tissue between the dorsal fin's rays.
In general Marine Angels and Tangs (Surgeonfish) seem to be the most susceptible to MHLLE.


Vitamin, Immune System

Spirulina 20 High Vitamin C Fish Food Vitamin and mineral deficiencies such as Vitamin C and possibly Vitamin B complex are one very likely cause of degeneration from my experience.
Proper feeding of foods high in these vitamins such as Spirulina Algae will help in this case.
These deficiencies along with poor water quality (which often results in poor Redox balance) show the most evidence for being the major cause of this affliction.

More information about: Aquarium Redox

Recommended Fish Food Resources:
  -Spirulina Algae Fish Food Flake
  -AAP Custom Fish Food Crumbles by Fish Food Guru Clay Neighbors

Many have attributed high nitrates due to poor water quality as a possible cause, however although low nitrates are certainly important for long term health, I believe high nitrates play a minor role in how poor water affects HLLE in fish.
I believe from my own tests (as well as research) that the lack of minerals and vitamins in low quality water along with a poor Redox Potential are the main culprits. I have witnessed Yellow Tangs turn around with the addition of trace elements in client’s tanks that previously never supplemented them.

SeaChem Entice As stated earlier the use of products such as Spirulina Algae, high quality additives such as SeaChem Vitality (as a fish food soak), adding trace elements & complete buffers as well a simple and basic water changes using quality salts aids profoundly in maintaining proper mineral/vitamin levels in marine fish. This is especially important since marine fish constantly drink the water around them which makes their body chemistry very much like that of the water around them (somewhat of an over simplification though).
Also for finicky marine fish such as many Butterflies and Angels, the use of products that entice the fish to eat high quality prepared fish food that they might otherwise ignore is suggested; one excellent example is SeaChem Entice

A Great Resource for more about Marine Fish & how they drink water:
Aquarium Answers, Do fish drink water?

Aquarium Redox & rH

Another aspect of water quality, immune system health is the The Aquarium Redox Potential.
A basic explanation; simply put a correct Redox potential acts as an anti-oxidant clearing away free radicals much the way many vitamins such as A, C and others do. Many aquarists are unfortunately unaware of this aspect of the aquarium keeping even though many human studies have shown direct correlation to correct Redox and lowering of free radicals.

More in depth though is the potential affect of Redox as it relates to electromagnetism and rH (relative hydrogen). While this is still in the arena of theory, my personal observations lead credibility to this, and in fact both science and observation make oxidative stress the leading factor in HLLE in my opinion!!
Early results suggest healthy aquariums will have rH reading s between 23 & 26

PLEASE reference this article for more on this subject:
“The Aquarium Redox Potential”.
Also Reference:
UV Sterilizer use for Redox Balance

Stray Electrical Current

Another theory is that an un-grounded aquarium can cause electrical fields that both interfere and degenerate the lateral line in fish. You can test this by using a pocket multi-meter on AC volts with a probe in the wall ground and a probe in the water.

HOWEVER, newer evidence does not seem to support this theory which quite bluntly from my experience makes sense as I have witnessed many broken or leaking electrical devices over years that I can actually feel the “stray” electrical current by holding my hand just above the water or if I have an open cut, YET the fish do not seem to be affected UNTIL one completes the circuit. An example is a Pacu I witnessed that “bit” into a loose set of wires that a client had left hanging into the tank, all was fine until the fish “completed” the circuit.
My point is that there is NO completed circuit until you complete it with a ground, which you do when touching the water while standing on the ground.

Carbon and NPOC

Other HLLE theories include the use of activated carbon, however in admittedly non-controlled studies I have seen no difference in occurrence or cure with the use of carbon, however it is possible that many are not keeping up with trace elements, and have a poor Redox and then the addition of carbon might remove what little anti-oxidants there are in an aquarium, but I do not think one can safely state that the use of carbon will lead to HLLE.

Another aspect of carbon that is not really related to the above use of activaed carbon is "Total Organic Carbon" ( aka TOC). This the amount of carbon found in an organic compound and is often used as a non-specific indicator of water quality. A general analysis for "Total Organic Carbon" measures both the total carbon present and the so-called "inorganic carbon", the latter representing the content of dissolved carbon dioxide and carbonic acid salts. Subtracting the inorganic carbon from the total carbon yields TOC.
Another common variant of TOC analysis involves removing the IC portion first and then measuring the leftover carbon. This method involves purging an acidified sample with carbon-free air or nitrogen prior to measurement, and so is more accurately called non-purgeable organic carbon (aka NPOC)

Referenced from:
Total organic carbon; Wikipedia

This clearly may have a bearing on Redox and rH, thus this theory has merit in it based on my research and experience, however no confirmed scientific studies have confirmed this as a causative factor in HLLE.

Use of Ozonizers/Ozone Generators

Both my observations and those of others confirm that the use of an aquarium Ozone Generator is a factor in MHLLE disease.
I have observed on multiple occasions that HLLE will get worse when the Ozonizer is added and improve when the Ozonizer is removed.
This said, removal has not cured HLLE either, so it is only a factor in my experience.

Better to use a high dwell time UV Sterilizer such as the AAP/TMC Vecton models for germicidal use and only use the Ozone Generator for improving protein skimming ina protein skimmer designed to handle an Ozonizer such as the AAP V2 Skim Marine Skimmers.

Product Resources:
*AAP Vecton/Advantage High Dwell Time UV Sterilizer
*AAP V2 Skim Professional Venturi Marine Aquarium Skimmers

Viruses, bacteria and parasites

Viruses, bacteria and parasites have also been blamed and once again I have not seen enough supporting evidence to support this theory as well.


Exposure to Copper is another theory, however once again since I used to use copper extensively over the years and have not observed any such correlation with normal use. This said, I would concur with this theory when copper levels exceed normal doses for long periods of time. I would suggest the use of Ionic Copper and not Chelated Copper.
Product Resource: AAP/SeaChem Ionic Copper


Finally another theory that does make sense based on my experience with 100s of marine aquariums (although not scientifically proven) are the lack of sunlight or correct lighting.
Proper lighting (or lack thereof) is another parameter for a healthy lateral line in fish.
Full spectrum lighting such as a combination 6,400 K or 20,000 K bulb and Actinic (UVA) bulb will help with this. The thought is that full spectrum lighting aids in the assimilation of certain vitamins, much as in humans and Vitamin D.

Please reference this very in depth article:
Proper Aquarium Lighting

Theory Summary

The subject of HLLE is something unlike other fish maladies, even HITH in freshwater fish, where I have made certain changes and never had a reoccurrence of the issue.
So while I have good evidence, both science and experience based, I cannot state categorically what the exact cause and preventative actions are for HLLE.

My best guesses based on this experience and research is that nutrients/vitamins, Redox/rH, & lighting are the key factors to focus on.

Further Reference:
* The Krib- Lateral Line Disease

Other Recommended Reference & Product Sites

Aquarium information for prevention of lateral line disease
Well researched and up to date aquarium and pond answers, help, and links. Based on 35 years of professional aquarium maintenance experience.

Fish Diseases, How to Treat Sick Fish
Fish Diseases | How to Treat Sick Fish

Reef Aquarium Care Basics for Lateral line disease prevention
Saltwater/Reef Aquarium Basics

*Aquarium Chemistry; Saltwater & Freshwater

*Fish Nutrition Information

*Marine Oodinium

Fluidized Sand Bed filters for aquarium health, lateral line disease prevention
TMC Premium FSB Filters

Premium, second to NONE Aquarium Bio Filters, that with optional Oolitic Sand can also maintain essential aquarium calcium levels, alkalinity, & electrolytes that are important to ALL Marine life, Goldfish, African Cichlids, Livebearers & more

EcoTech LED Review

EcoTech Radion Pro Versus AquaRay LED Lights

A must read article for those interested in the science of aquarium lighting, and not desiring to follow the many lemmings in cut & paste aquarium forums

Hydor Smart Wave Controller
Hydor Smart Wave Controller

• Promotes a healthy reef aquarium or similar aquarium environment where wave action is desired by recreating natural currents found in nature
• Synchronous program for currents typical of barrier reefs and alternate for tides

Aquarium, Pond Plumbing Parts
Aquarium & Pond Plumbing Parts

Difficult to find or unique parts found nowhere else!
Including: T Water Diverters, Hose Barb Adapters, Couplings, & Reducers, Ball Valves, Swing Check Valves, Return Adapters, Intake Adapters


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In Chronological order of writing with the newest at the top

  1. How to Treat Sick Fish
  2. Whirling Disease in Fish
  3. Reef Aquarium Chemistry Maintenance
  4. Use of RO, DI, Softwater in Aquariums
  5. Lighting Theory of a Planted Aquarium- RQE, PFY, PAS, & PUR
  6. Aquarium or Pond Bio Load
  7. Tuberculosis in Fish
  8. PUR vs PAR in Aquarium Lighting
  9. Head Pressure in Aquarium and Pond Water Pumps
  10. Fin/Tail Rot For Betta & ALL Fish
  11. Angelfish Virus/Aids
  12. Activated Carbon
  13. Fish Baths/Dips as an aid to treatment
  14. Streptococcus gram positive bacterium in aquariums, Eye Infections
  15. Hydrogen Sulfide
    production in anaerobic De-Nitrification for Aquarium/Ponds
  16. Fish Shipping
  17. Aquarium Size, Fish Stunting
  18. Aquarium Algae,
    BBA & Brown Algae in particular
  19. Aquarium Salt (Sodium chloride) in Freshwater Aquariums
  20. Betta Habitat; Wild Bettas to Domestic Betta environment parameters
  21. HITH; Hole in the Head Disease
  22. Aquarium Protein Skimmers, Ozonizers
  23. Power Head/ Water Pump Review
  24. Molly Disease/ Mollies in an Aquarium
  25. Basic Fish Anatomy, Fin Identification
  26. Aquarium Moving/ Power Failures
  27. Octopus as Aquarium Pets
  28. Aquarium Nitrates
  29. Ichthyophonus protists, fungus in fish
  30. Aquarium and Pond Filter Media
    Types; Mechanical, Bio, Chemical
  31. Aquarium Water Conditioners (also Pond)
  32. Fish Parasites; Trematodes & Monogeneans; Annelids and Nematodes;
    Flukes, internal worms, Detritus Worms (often confused with Planaria), Micro Worms
  33. Aquarium Silicone Application;
    DIY Aquarium Repair & Glass thickness
  34. Pond Veggie Filters; DIY Bog Filter
  35. The difference between Plaster of Paris and Aquarium Products such a Wonder Shells:
    Identification, prevention & Treatment
  37. AQUARIUM TEST KITS; Use & Importance
  38. SEXING FISH; Basics
  39. Chocolate Chip, Knobby and Fromia Starfish
  40. Freshwater Velvet & Costia
  41. Usnic Acid as a Fish Remedy
  42. Aquarium Heaters; Types, information
  43. The Lateral Line in Fish, Lateral Line Disease
    or Head and Lateral Line Erosion (HLLE)
  44. Tap Water use in Aquarium; Chloramines, Chlorine
  45. Can Black Ghost Knife fish give an electric shock?
  46. Bio Wheel Review; Do Bio-Wheels really work?
  47. How do Fish Drink?
    Use of RO Water
  48. Cyclops, and Predatory Damselfly larvae
  49. Betta with Dropsy;
    Treatment and Prevention of DROPSY in all fish
  50. pH and KH problems in African Cichlid Aquarium
  51. Aquarium Gravel, which size?
  52. Blue green algae, Cyanobacteria in Ponds/Aquariums

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