aquarium and pond answers, information, articles, resources
AQUARIUM ANSWERS (AND POND);


This is a great resource for answers, help, & advice to aquarium and pond questions not found elsewhere; With regular posts & article updates.
In our research; we use aquaculture, horticulture, medical, & university research to compile many of our articles.



  See our AQUARIUM ANSWERS DIRECTORY page for topics by category.  

Loading

USNEA; USING USNIC ACID AS A FISH REMEDY FOR TUMORS AND MORE.

 

How Usnic acid and Mucilage which are both found in Usnea lichen can be used as effective alternative aquarium and pond fish treatments.

By Carl Strohmeyer
Updated 9/26/13

Usnea Sprig on branch, for aquarium fish and human gram positive bacteria

Scientific name: Usnea barbata Usnea is a lichen of the family Parmeliaceae that grows in damp temperate woodlands and contains usnic acid (C18H16O7). I have found it effective for bacterial (some gram negative and most gram positive), fungal and even parasites such as ich.
The other active ingredient (besides usnic acid) is mucilage.








Usnea in forest
As a natural antibiotic it has also proven effective against gram positive bacteria, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis (making Usnea a great alternative to Isoniazid).
Scientists believe that usnic acid works by disrupting cellular metabolism, either by preventing the formation of ATP which is the cells' energy source or by the stopping the action of oxidative phosphorylization. Usnea may also be a better choice than the drug metronidazole (as per human studies) for parasites and anaerobic bacterial treatments in aquariums.

Usnea contains potent antibiotic and antifungal agents that are broad spectrum and effective against all gram-positive and tuberculosis bacterium. As well, the Usnic acid found therein has shown antiviral, anti-protozoal, anti-inflammatory and analgesic (pain killer) activity.

It is also noteworthy that Usnea is edible, with no known toxic side effects from ingestion in animal and human studies and as well is an excellent source of Vitamin C.

More information about Usnea;

Test tube studies have suggested an anti-cancer and an anti-viral activity for usnic acid. This may also make Usnea useful for the hard to treat aquatic viral disease; Lymphocystis (which is usually not fatal in otherwise healthy fish). The human studies can also be transferred to fish for tumors. I personally have not tested this enough as of writing this article, but based on human studies and the few tests I have done, Usnic acid shows promise here.

Here are preliminary results based on my tests and tests on humans or veterinary application that can be extrapolated to fish:



Application:

Brewed Usnea tea for treatment
I boil one small sprig (about an adult thumb size) in 6 oz. of water and add this to every 10-20 gallons of water every day until cure is effective +2 days. Make sure to remove the Usnea sprig from the “brewed Usnea tea”, otherwise this will allow the tea/medication to spoil. I also recommend refrigeration after brewing of any unused Usnea brew.

1 tablespoon per 6 oz. of this preparation can also be used for a 1 quart bath as an alternative (This is my preferred Use of Usnea!).

Please see these articles for more about the use of baths for treating fish:
*Fish Baths, Dips, Swabs; For Disease, Ammonia, etc. Treatment
* Aquarium Disease Prevention; Quarantine

Please keep in mind that at this point I would consider this an experimental treatment, mostly in actual dose, so ANY positive or negative feedback is welcome, especially as per dosing effectiveness.
As to the actual effectiveness, there is enough evidence in my own trials and even more so in well researched human trials that this can and will be an effective treatment, the most effective dosing amounts is what is still the biggest question at this point.

I will also point out that my results have generally resulted in 25% success, HOWEVER this is from using Usnea as a last resort medication when others have failed, so this is actually relatively good number when that is considered. I will soon start using this more as a "first treatment" especially for gill injuries/infections/inflammation to find more results as to use of Usnea in mode of treatment.
Feedback from a few clients has been better when used as a bath, with often positive results when used for generally gram positive infections or even Fish Tuberculosis (I am not recommending this for human TB, please see a doctor for this).

The only dangers that have been established (in human studies) are in rare cases liver damage, which would make this a poor choice for dropsy.

If interested in some Usnea for your own trials, you can purchase Usnea near the end of this Organic Medications Article:
Aquarium Medications 4; Purchase Usnea

As for related Disease Prevention Suggestions; the use of UV Sterilization is a proven method of fish disease prevention not only due to removal of many water born disease pathogens, but by improving the Redox Balance and thus the Fish' natural immunity.
The key is a properly installed, quality UV Sterilizer, not one of the many Cheapie models such as the AquaTop PFUV-40 Hang On Filter.
With a quality UV such as the TMC Vecton or Advantage UV, it is also imperative to change your UV Bulb every six months for maximum effectiveness.

See these references and product links:

*Aquarium & Pond UV Sterilization
*Quality UV Sterilizers
*TMC Vecton or Advantage UV Sterilizer
*UV Bulb; Replacements

More About Usnea:
What is Usnea?

Other Recommended Reference Sites

*Aquarium Medications Page 1

*Aquarium Lighting Information from A to Z

*Aquarium Filtration; Filter Use Information

*Aquarium Fish Nutrition

*FISH AS PETS; News of Interest to the Aquarium Hobby

Labels: , , ,






<< Home

This page is powered by Blogger. Isn't yours?



AQUARIUM ANSWERS;
ARTICLES:

In Chronological order of writing with the newest at the top
  1. Aquarium or Pond Bio Load
  2. Tuberculosis in Fish
  3. PUR vs PAR in Aquarium Lighting
  4. Head Pressure in Aquarium and Pond Water Pumps
  5. Betta Fin Rot
  6. Angelfish Virus/Aids
  7. Activated Carbon
  8. Fish Baths/Dips as an aid to treatment
  9. Streptococcus gram positive bacterium in aquariums, Eye Infections
  10. Hydrogen Sulfide
    production in anaerobic De-Nitrification for Aquarium/Ponds
  11. Fish Shipping
  12. Aquarium Size, Fish Stunting
  13. Aquarium Algae,
    BBA & Brown Algae in particular
  14. Aquarium Salt (Sodium chloride) in Freshwater Aquariums
  15. Betta Habitat; Wild Bettas to Domestic Betta environment parameters
  16. HITH; Hole in the Head Disease
  17. Aquarium Protein Skimmers, Ozonizers
  18. Power Head/ Water Pump Review
  19. Molly Disease/ Mollies in an Aquarium
  20. Basic Fish Anatomy, Fin Identification
  21. Aquarium Moving/ Power Failures
  22. Octopus as Aquarium Pets
  23. Aquarium Nitrates
  24. Ichthyophonus protists, fungus in fish
  25. Aquarium and Pond Filter Media
    Types; Mechanical, Bio, Chemical
  26. Aquarium Water Conditioners (also Pond)
  27. Fish Parasites; Trematodes & Monogeneans; Annelids and Nematodes;
    Flukes, internal worms, Detritus Worms (often confused with Planaria), Micro Worms
  28. Aquarium Silicone Application;
    DIY Aquarium Repair & Glass thickness
  29. Pond Veggie Filters; DIY Bog Filter
  30. The difference between Plaster of Paris and Aquarium Products such a Wonder Shells:
  31. NEON TETRA DISEASE
    Identification, prevention & Treatment
  32. AQUARIUM TEST KITS; Use & Importance
  33. SEXING FISH; Basics
  34. Chocolate Chip, Knobby and Fromia Starfish
  35. Freshwater Velvet & Costia
  36. Usnic Acid as a Fish Remedy
  37. Aquarium Heaters; Types, information
  38. The Lateral Line in Fish, Lateral Line Disease
    or Head and Lateral Line Erosion (HLLE)
  39. Tap Water use in Aquarium; Chloramines, Chlorine
  40. Can Black Ghost Knife fish give an electric shock?
  41. Bio Wheel Review; Do Bio-Wheels really work?
  42. How do Fish Drink?
    PROPER OSMOTIC FUNCTION-
    Use of RO Water
  43. Cyclops, and Predatory Damselfly larvae
  44. Betta with Dropsy;
    Treatment and Prevention of DROPSY in all fish
  45. pH and KH problems in African Cichlid Aquarium
  46. Aquarium Gravel, which size?
  47. Blue green algae, Cyanobacteria in Ponds/Aquariums
  48. AQUARIUM ANSWERS DIRECTORY


Recommended Related Information Sites & Products from our family of PROFESSIONAL aquarium and pond websites:

TMC V2 RO Filter systems; the very best you can buy with TDS meter:
Reverse Osmosis Aquarium Water Filter, TDSReverse Osmosis Aquarium Water Filters; with TDS Meter

A good compliment to RO water or for any freshwater aquarium to add ESSENTIAL Mineral Ions:
*Wonder Shells, Mineral Block

For help with your Aquarium Chemistry:
Aquarium Chemistry; In Depth Information

World Class Aquarium Information
For unique aquatic products (most professionally tested) and information;
*American Aquarium

Including the best in Quartz, Under gravel, and Titanium Submersible Heaters:
*Aquarium Heaters
*Hydor Undergravel Heaters

for the LATEST technology in Aquarium LED lighting:
LED Aquarium Lights
As well as a Premium simple "screw-in" LEDs for Aquariums or Hydroponics:
*PAR 38 LEDs

For economy HOB Filters that deliver the same or better results over filters often twice the price:
*Economy Aquarium Power Filters

*SunSun Reliable Submersible Power Head Aquarium Water Circulation PumpAquarium Power Head Pumps
Superior to Hagen or Marineland, yet more economical.

Sponge Filters that far outperform all other brands or DIY:
*Patented Lustar Hydro Sponge Aquarium Filters

UV Replacement Bulbs/Lamps:
UV Replacement bulbs for Tetra Mini, Cyprio Vorton, Bioforce, moreG23 & G11 UV Replacement Bulbs (PLL & PLS)
*Standard Straight Tube UV Lamps
*UV Bulbs directory

The Best in Value UV Sterilizers:
*Aquarium & Pond UV-C Sterilizers/Clarifiers
Including;
Compact Aquarium and Pond UV Sterilizer, better value than Tetra, Turbo TwistCOMPACT UV STERILIZERS, Terminator 7 watt to 36 watt
*TMC PREMIUM High Dwell Time Pond/Aquarium UV Sterilizers

For Aquarium Treatment Products

*Aquarium & Pond Treatments
Including:
*Furan 2

Proper Pond Filtration, Cleaning, care, chemistry & Basics for maintaining a beautiful garden pond:
*A CLEAR POND; Care & Information

Fish Food Information:
PROPER FISH NUTRITION

Premium Canister Aquarium Filters:
Rena Filstar High Performance Canister Filters

Aquarium Decorations, Decorative Coral, Driftwood, DeCoral, PlantsDecorative Coral
Aquarium Decorations such as

*Plastic Aquarium Plants

*Aquarium Driftwood

*Aquarium & Pond UV Sterilizer Use Articles
-Unique articles such as unique UV ideas as well as dispelling myths

*Directions/ Instructions/Downloads; Aquarium Pond Products

A unique web site with great insights:
Aquarium LED Information

Pocket UVC PurifierPocket Purifier Only $14.99
The unique hand held germ eliminating device; kills Flu, Staph & more without harmful chemicals such as bleach Great Gift



For Website Building/Hosting and who Aquarium Answers recommends (& uses for sister websites):
Website Hosting, powerful web site maker, ecommerce
Make a Website on siterightnow.com



If you have found this site helpful (or the sister site Aquarium and Pond Information),
please consider adding a link to one of our articles from your own blog or website.

OR a donation to help with the 1000s of hours of research and updates that go into these articles (even just $1 helps!):




All articles are the copyrighted material of Carl Strohmeyer, these can be used ONLY in part and only with proper hyper link.
Use with Google Adwords/Adsense is STRICTLY prohibited without revenue sharing




Add to My Yahoo!



Ocean Decor

Great Links
Carl Strohmeyer; Biography
Internet Sales Tax; is anything but fair


Links
Archives