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Aquarium & Pond Filter Media, Material; Mechanical, Bio, Chemical
Aquarium Filter Media;
Types (Carbon, etc.), Capacities, Replacement/Care and more
(This applies to ponds as well).
- Mechanical Filter Material
- Aquarium floss, wool, or fiber
- Micron Cartridges
- Poly Filter Pads
- Ehfi Synth
- Sponge and Foam Media
- Cleaning pads as filter media
- Coarse Gravel & Ceramic Rings
- Bio Filter Media (Nitrifying only)
- Ceramic Bio Rings
- Bio Rings/Balls
- Bio-Chem stars
- Sponge and Foam Media
- Nitrifying AND De-Nitrifying Bio Filter Media
- Cured Live Rock Crumbles
- Volcanic Rock
- Aqua Clay
- Chemical Filter material
- Activated Carbon
- Resins, ion exchangers, synthetic polymers, or adsorbents
- Boyd’s Chemi-Pure
- THE Poly Pad
- API Bio-Chem Zorb
- AmmoChips (AmmoCarb, Zeolite)
- Mineral Blocks (Wonder Shells)
- Water Softening Products
In this article I will discus three basic filter media types and subtypes of these.
These filter media types are Mechanical, Biological, and Chemical.
As well I will briefly describe care and replacement of these filter mediums in each section
For more Aquarium filtration information, including canister filter media diagrams, please visit this article: AQUARIUM FILTRATION; how they work, advantages and disadvantages of each
This media is primarily for trapping particulates in the water from large to small. In a canister filter or similar this should be the first phase of filtration (although many aquarists have done well with ceramic bio media used a coarse filter media that is both mechanical and biological provided it is rinsed in de-chlorinate tap water regularly.
Sub types include:
FINE FILTER MEDIA
*Basic aquarium floss or fiber which is a finer filter media.
In canister filters I will often use this to make a "sandwich", placing carbon or other chemical media in the middle for the final stage of filtration.
*Micron Cartridges for Filters such as Magnums or Aquarium Cleaning Machines. These cartridges can often filter down to diatom size and are excellent for cleanup, green aquariums, cloudy aquariums, even parasite infestations.
*Poly Filter Pads; similar to micron cartridges in their abilities (although usually not as efficient), but are excellent for canister filters.
As with filter floss, in canister filters I will often use this to make a "sandwich", placing carbon or other chemical media in the middle for the final stage of filtration.
Regular Poly Filter Pads (not to be confused with THE Poly Pad, see later under chemical filter media) such as this one to the left, which is effective for trapping very fine particulates, free floating algae, and even some larger molecules; I use these myself and recommend them for the uses I just mentioned, I just do not recommend these for of ammonia, phosphate removal, etc.
One more use of these types of pads is if used in an easy to change location such as a HOB or Wet/Dry filter they can be useful for lowering nitrates as well as long as they are rinsed every 1-3 days.
How this works is this filter material will trap fine organic particles BEFORE going through the nitrogen cycle which would otherwise result in nitrates. The key is regular rinsing in CHLORINATED water so as to prevent the formation of nitrifying bacteria that would break down organics resulting in higher nitrates. This is similar to how the micron cartridges work (except on a much smaller and less efficient scale) in cleaning filters such as the Aquarium Cleaning Machines
These Poly Pads are often an excellent choice for a Pre-Filter in wet/dry filters that have a flat "spreading basin" design with small holes for water to percolate through.
See the picture to the left.
MEDIUM FILTER MEDIA;
*Ehfi Synth by Eheim is an example of an excellent medium mechanical filter media.
*Sponge and Foam Media; sponge and foam inserts/filters fall into both mechanical and biological categories. Their effectiveness can vary in both mechanical and bio abilities.
The Hagen foam inserts pictured here is more coarse than some sponges (foam) and would be classified as medium mechanical media. They are not very dense and do not have as much bio capacity though.
The Hydro Sponge line (replacement sponges pictured, click picture to visit), has patented sponges of different porosity. The reticulated sponges found in the Filter Max #3, Hydro Pond and other is both dense (for good bio filtration) and medium in mechanical ability. The smaller model sponges (such as the Filter Max #2 and smaller, the Hydro Sponge #3 and smaller are actually a fine filter media (not as fine as poly pads and micron cartridges) comparable to filter fiber however with much more bio capacity. These do however require more rinsing due to their fine mechanical filtration.
Hydro Sponge Filter are also excellent for use in certain designs of wet/dry filters as a pre-filter an/or pump pick-up filter.
Mounting these filters is easy (you only need the replacement filters, not the entire filter). You would insert a 3/4" pvc pipe that is drilled and capped into a #3 Sponge Replacement or similar and let the water percolate through the sponge media.
See the picture to the left which display both uses of a sponge filter in a wet dry system.
*Cleaning pads as filter media; I have used the glass aquarium cleaning pads by Lees Aquarium Products for a medium filter pad they work great and are economical! I simply purchase the largest size I need and then cut to fit.
As well these cleaning pads are excellent for developing nitrifying bacterial colonies and thus perform bio filtration as well after 4-8 weeks, I generally use these in HOB Filters in from of the more fine mesh cartridge or in a canister filter in a similar placement manner.
*You can also use a medium grade gravel or volcanic rock as a medium filter media for canister filters (see picture below for volcanic rock)
COARSE FILTER MEDIA;
*Ceramic Rings; As stated earlier ceramic bio media can be used for coarse filtration.
*Coarse gravel or better volcanic rock also makes an excellent coarse mechanical filter media (the volcanic rock is also a good bio media as well).
MECHANICAL FILTER MEDIA CARE:
As a generalization, most fine filter media (such as filter wool, polyester filter pads, etc.) should be changed when dirty.
HOWEVER often many poly pads that are well made (meaning they do not fall apart readily) can be rinsed or even bleached and used repeated (soaking bleached filter pads in water with 2-3 x normal tank dose of water conditioners such as Prime will remove the bleach once finished). This even true of some basic HOB filter cartridges (although the Whisper Filter cartridges do not hold up much to rinsing).
Micron cartridges also rinse/bleach repeatedly well.
Medium and coarse filter media such as sponge or coarse polyester filter pads generally rinse very easily and only need to be changed when these pads (or similar) no longer hold together well.
This is filter media designed to allow the growth of nitrifying (and sometimes de-nitrifying) bacteria to remove nitrogenous wastes such as ammonia and nitrites. This is one of the primary goals of aquarium filtration!
Nitrifying (removes ammonia & nitrites):
*Ceramic Bio Rings which go by many names are efficient bio filter media that have a capacity of 20,000 square foot per gallon. These however clog easily and need a monthly rinsing (in de-chlorinated water) to perform best. These have deep pores that can hold nitrifying and some de-nitrifying bacteria.
These are popular with canister filters, as well ceramic bio rings can be used in HOB filters, and even wet/dry filters.
Due to the high volume of potential nitrifying bio bacteria in a small space, this is a desirable product when space is at a premium (especially when compared to bio-balls). However volcanic rock has similar properties and a rougher surface, so there are fewer tendencies to develop slime over the media and clog, which is the one negative of ceramic bio media.
The Ceramic Bio Rings are for aerobic (nitrifying; removal of ammonia & nitrites) bio filtration only, not anaerobic de-nitrifying (removal of nitrates).
*Bio Rings/Balls; these are popular in Wet/Dry systems where their high surface area (no pores) are exposed to oxygen rich air. Bio Balls can also be used in HOB and built in Wet/Dry filters effectively, although they will often be exposed to less oxygen in these systems. Bio Balls generally have from 100 to 160 square feet per gallon and are generally much more economical than ceramic rings when large quantities are needed, such as wet/dry filters.
However, bio balls are purely for aerobic nitrifying bacteria as there are no deep pores for the formation of de-nitrifying (nitrate removing) bacteria. This makes bio balls a poor choice for marine aquariums despite the popularity of bio balls in many marine systems over the years (although thankfully many have realized the “nitrate factory” potential of bio balls and saltwater use is rare nowadays).
*Bio-Chem stars are made from a porous polymer in a process that forms a very fine 50-70 micron internal pore network, this pore size is optimal for the growth of beneficial bacteria, including nitrifying bacteria that remove toxic ammonia and nitrite. Bacteria grow within the star, colonizing the entire structure. One Bio-Chem star has 33 times more bacteria growing area than the average bio ball, with 20 stars able to support up to a 100 U.S. gallon (379 L) aquarium. The stars can also be used to float on the water surface in external power filters.
The Bio-Chem Stars are for aerobic (nitrifying; removal of ammonia & nitrites) bio filtration only, not anaerobic de-nitrifying (removal of nitrates), however these are one of the better products for this use based on my extensive ‘measured’ use of these ‘stars’ over the years.
*Sponge and Foam Media; Sometimes incorrectly thought of only as a mechanical filter media (or the opposite), however sponge filter media which can vary in capacity per square foot depending upon the type and brand is one of the better bio medias especially when price and space are considered. I have use sponge filter media such as the Hydro Pond #4 for pre filters on pumps in sumps for refugiums or similar filters with very good results.
The sponge is also how several HOB filters utilize nitrifying bacteria such as the Aqua Clear or Whisper (with the sponge insert). In fact I did several experiments several years back comparing sponge filters and sponge equipped HOB filters to the much hyped bio wheel and the sponge media one the tests (which at the time caught me by surprise as I was a believer in the bio wheel hype, not that the bio wheel does not work)! Please see this article about bio wheels: “Do Bio Wheels really Work”.
The bottom line is most high grade sponge filter media such as that used by Hydro Sponge and Aqua Clear are almost as efficient a bio media as many other types such as bio rings and better than bio balls and sponge media has the advantage of ease of rinsing which is a plus over some other bio media.
Please read this article for more information about sponge filtration: “Sponge Filtration, how sponge filters work”
Nitrifying AND De-Nitrifying (removal of nitrates as well via anaerobic bacteria):
It should be noted that the flow rate of water may need to be adjusted for the cultivation of de-nitrifying bacteria in the products listed below in this section of the article (dissolved oxygen levels also have an effect as well).
As a generalization, higher flow rates will require a larger outside surface area for anaerobic bacteria to form deep inside the media (as oxygen permeating the media will not allow the proper cultivation of this bacteria), so with many products you will find it necessary to find a “sweet spot” as to flow rate since size of the media cannot be controlled (except for maybe taking a mallet to volcanic rock or live rock crumbles).
Please also reference this article:
Hydrogen Sulfide Production & Nitrate Removal
*Cured Live Rock Crumbles; this has been VERY effective for me in canister and wet/dry systems (in place of bio balls or ceramic bio media), rock piles, Refugiums, mud filters and other marine systems for both aerobic (nitrifying) and anaerobic (de-nitrifying) bacterial functions. Generally I use live rock pieces about 3-4 cm in diameters.
*Volcanic rock; I already mentioned this above for mechanical filtration however I will mention it again as it is very porous and makes an excellent bio media for aerobic and anaerobic (de-nitrifying) bacteria for both fresh and saltwater. I have generally used smaller pieces (based on availability) of volcanic rock as compared to live rock crumbles; 1-3 cm.
Care is simple, just lightly rinse when any organic mulm/detritus builds up in the pores of the rock, but do not over rinse so as to destroy any anaerobic bacteria deep inside the volcanic rock. Very rarely does volcanic rock need replacement, usually I just add-to already established volcanic rock in any filter and at most replace 10-20% at a time if truly necessary due to non-rinsible mulm build-ups.
The advantage of Volcanic Rock is price as compared to other aerobic/anaerobic bio media.
The disadvantage is that Volcanic Rock is that Volcanic Rock is not as consistent in size both of the rock itself and in pores within the rock when compared to more premium products such as Matrix or Bio-Home which results in less bio filtration in a given volume of media.
Volcanic rock is excellent in pond filters and marine aquarium systems!
Matrix; Another product I have used with good results is SeaChem Matrix for both ammonia/nitrite removal (nitrification/aerobic) & nitrate control (de-nitrification/anaerobic).
What sets Matrix apart from other products such as Eheim Substrate that also can perform nitrifying and de-nitrifying functions is pore size.
Eheim Substrat Pro and JBL MicroMec which are similar products (in both cases, sintered glass) and are claiming larger specific surface areas than for SeaChem Matrix, however there is a second consideration, and that is the size of the pores in the medium. Generally, with very large pore diameters, we have smaller specific surface area, so that is not good. This generally rules out pores above 10 microns in diameter. But we can go too far in the other direction as many products such as Eheim (Substrat Pro) and JBL (MicroMec) have done. If we have a very large number of very, very small pores, then our specific surface area number will be phenomenal, but the medium will not work very well as a biological medium. This is due to physical limitations, specifically too small a volume to support bacterial growth, and the decreasing efficiency of fluid transport (necessary to carry nutrients to the bacteria and waste away from the bacteria) with very small pore sizes.
Surface area measurements indicate that SeaChem Matrix contains nearly 10 times the specific surface area of Substrat Pro, and more than 20 times the specific surface area of MicroMec. Practically all the specific surface area of both Substrat Pro and MicroMec are in the range of pore diameters to be biologically useful (especially anaerobic), while some of the surface area of Matrix is in pores that are reserved for physical and chemical processes, not biological processes.
Algone has been around for some time now, in fact I have used this product for many years with my aquarium maintenance companies with good (& measured) results for both Marine/Reef and freshwater aquariums.
Algone works via nitrate fixating microorganisms which incorporate excess nitrogen into the cellular mass, while bioactive enzymes assimilate nitrogen from the water column. The result is lower nitrates, removal of dissolved organic and inorganic pollutants, toxins, and odors.
Algone Water Clarifier & Nitrate Remover
NPX BioPlastics is a Nitrate & Phosphate Reducing Polymer Media developed by by Julian Sprung that provides a time-released source of food for bacteria that can quickly assimilate nitrate and phosphate.
This product works by anaerobic zones developing within the Spheres/ pellets, thus promoting de-nitrification there-in.
As well, when "churned" in a Fluidized Filter or Reactor, bacteria develop on the pellet surfaces and slough off, then these bacteria can be removed with a protein skimmer, Purigen, or serve as planktonic food for corals, clams, sponges and other filter-feeding invertebrates.
Most users have found this product superior to Vodka Dosing Methods to reduce Nitrates & Phosphates in Marine Aquariums (freshwater use is possible with Purigen in a separate filter).
*AquaClay; This product is growing in popularity in Europe, however currently high shipping costs/volume requirements are keeping it from North America. Current tests with this product show much promise, especially in nitrate reduction capabilities
BIOLOGICAL FILTER MEDIA CARE:
Bio filter media should ONLY be rinsed in used aquarium/pond water (then dispose of the water) or de-chlorinated tap water (non chlorinated well water is OK too).
Even then excessive rinsing can destroy some nitrifying bacteria, so do not worry about rinsing until the rinse water is perfectly clear.
Even more care should be given to de-nitrifying bio material (such as Matrix, Volcanic Rock, Live Rock Crumbles, etc., as the aerobic bacteria are readily destroyed in the oxygen rich environment a rinsing would provide. My suggestion with this media (including media that provides both nitrifying and de-nitrifying bio capacity) is to only rinse 50% or less of any such media at a time and provide 2-4 weeks before rinsing the other half.
CHEMICAL (Absorbing):These are filter media that absorb or bind chemicals and toxins within the media.
*Carbon; a very popular chemical filter media that is often over used in established aquariums and sometimes ponds as well. A healthy established aquarium (fresh or salt) with regular water changes generally needs little carbon. In newer aquariums I will often use about 1-3 teaspoons per 10 gallons. Carbon will NOT remove or absorb ammonia, nitrites, or nitrates. Carbon is very useful in removing medications after treatment or even between doses.
There is controversy in what essential minerals carbon will absorb or what activated carbon will or will not absorb in general. I will state based on my own experience and scientific evidence that carbon has many uses in aquariums/ponds but is also over used or incorrectly recommended. Although I use little carbon in my established healthy aquariums and ponds, I disagree with those that state it should not or rarely be used (based on some false assumptions of what carbon removes or adds to water). On the flip side I also disagree with those that make carbon the answer for water quality issues such as nitrates for which carbon does not remove.
Activated Carbon is very useful for removing most medications after or between treatments (this is where I strongly recommend its use), although even here, carbon does not remove most copper formulations effectively.
Here is an incomplete list of what carbon does and does not remove based on a University Research Paper;
What Carbon CAN remove:
*Mercury (Hg+2) Inorganic
*Organic Mercury Complexes
*Total Trihalomethanes (TTHMs)
What Carbon CANNOT remove:
*Nitrates, nitrites, ammonia
*Lead and other heavy metals are removed only by a very specific type of AC filter
|For much more about the use of Carbon in aquariums/ponds, please see this new Aquarium Answers Article:|
Please reference this study for more about carbon:
*Resins, ion exchangers, synthetic polymers, or adsorbents; there are many resins (not all are safe for both freshwater and saltwater) from phosphate removing resins to nitrate sponges. My results are generally good with the main issue being expense as most of these resins are very expensive to use in the quantity needed for say nitrate removal. Hagen Green-X (Phos-X) is a product that I have used successfully in marine and freshwater aquariums. Green-X removes phosphate, nitrate and nitrite and it relatively inexpensive when compared to similar products. Unfortunately I believe that Hagen has discontinued this product.
Another popular resin is Purigen.
SeaChem Purigen is a premium synthetic adsorbent made up of unique macro-porous synthetic polymer that removes soluble and insoluble impurities from water at a rate and capacity that exceeds all others by over 500%. It is not a mixture of ion exchangers or adsorbents.
Purigen controls ammonia, nitrites and nitrates by removing nitrogenous organic waste that would otherwise release these harmful compounds.
Purigen is also often effective in tannin removal in aquariums or ponds (that causes yellow water) when carbon and other products are not (especially when combined with Matrix).
Purigen’s impact on trace elements is minimal.
However Purigen can affect Redox, although Purigens affect on Redox is not as severe as products such as Boyd's Chemi-Pure or "THE" Poly Pad, so the addition of mineral cations such as the use of Wonder Shells while using this product is greatly encouraged!!
*Boyd’s Chemi-Pure; this is a popular product that I must be missing something about it as I have used it several times in my maintenance business and have never quite seen this product meets its claims.
In fact in marine aquariums I have seen very unstable pH when this product is used.
I also have some problems with the claim by the manufacturer of “NO CLEANING - Necessary for health of fish”.
I personally feel very strongly about regular water changes even with products I recommend. This all said, I do know persons in this hobby whom I respect who like this product, so I will leave it at that.
Another key point is that the Aquarium Redox balance is substantially affected with the use of this product, so use with caution or add mineral cations to negate this side effect.
*"THE" Poly Pad and similar pads by Boyds claim to remove heavy metals such as copper as well as phosphates, ammonia, and nitrites as well as certain organic via proprietary matrix of synthetic poly fibers.
My use of these has not quite stood up to the claims of this product as per phosphates, and ammonia/nitrites, however I have seen improvements in heavy metals (especially copper) and some organics. This said, most dense poly fiber pads have similar results as to organics and as per certain element removal, I would use with caution especially in planted aquariums. For those that use this product, I am not saying that it does not work, however the claims of what this product can do are just too broad and my test results to not mesh with claims and if all the claims were true you would deplete a tank too much of essential elements (that are important during times of stress such as new fish, shipping, etc.) and you would have no need for bio filtration (which of coarse is not true). I think the Wonder Shell actually stands up to its claims better and in fact should be used with this product.
*Bio-Chem Zorb; this product by API provides a home for colonies of nitrifying bacteria in both fresh and saltwater aquariums. Space-age porous polymer allows for rapid transfer of oxygen and water.
Bio-Chem Zorb is made from a research grade carbon/resin in a flow-through nylon pouch.
It removes aquarium pollutants, improves oxygenation, and the manufacturer claims it will not remove trace elements from saltwater (which I question this claim based on Redox tests, and although a good product, use of mineral cation supplements should be used with this product).
I have used this product with moderate success. I strongly recommend the use of additional mineral cations such as Wonder Shells with this product.
The bottom line as to the above Ion exchangers, resins, synthetic polymers, etc. is that all seem to have at least some negative impact on a healthy Redox balance, with Purigen being the most minimal, so care as to the addition of mineral cations or other methods of improving Redox Balance (such as UV Sterilization) should be employed when using this products.
If a UV Sterilizer is employed, it is essential for optimum effectiveness that the UV Bulb, Lamp is changed every six months.
*AmmoChips (AmmoCarb, Zeolite); this is only safe for use in freshwater aquariums as salt in much quantity will leech out the ammonia it absorbs (use with small amounts of salt under 1 tablespoon per gallon is OK). This is a useful product (especially when combined with carbon in freshwater aquariums such as AmmoCarb) for new aquariums, overcrowded aquariums, or when used in conjunction with carbon after medication treatment that may kill off some nitrifying bacteria such as Erythromycin.
I generally use this product over straight carbon when I even use carbon in freshwater (the keyword is even use as I do not often use carbon in healthy freshwater aquariums).
Whether you use straight Zeolite (Ammochips) or Zeolite/ carbon combinations, the exhaustion of the Zeolite from ammonia absorption can vary considerably based on your aquariums bio load and the health of your tank’s nitrifying bacteria (a healthy nitrifying colony will remove some of the ammonia before the Zeolite absorbs it). Testing for ammonia and the end product; nitrates are one way of gauging exhaustion of your zeolite. Generally changing your zeolite once every two to as long as six weeks has worked in my experience.
Do not leave zeolite in your aquarium/pond indefinitely as it still can eventually leach ammonia back into the water.
*Wonder Shells; a poorly named product that even though it’s name implies more than it delivers is an excellent product (more so than Chemi Pure in my experience). These are also as much or more a Water Conditioner/Treatment than a chemical filtrant.
Although this product can be placed in your filter like other media, this is not best as it will dissolve to rapidly. Wonder Shells are best placed on the bottom of the aquarium.
What this product does is it adds several trace elements (electrolytes) such as calcium while it dissolves according to natural water chemistry. The results have excellent in many aquariums, especially livebearers, goldfish, betta, African cichlids, and Discus (and many more).
I recommend reading this article for more about how a Wonder Shell may benefit your aquarium:
*Water Softening Products; Peat, Peat Pellets, Indian Almond Leaves, or Plllow Moss are popular for maintaining a lower pH in Amazon River or similar aquariums.
As with Wonder Shells, these can only loosely classified as a chemical filtrant, as these are as much or more a water treatment.
Of the Indian Almond Leaf products, I prefer the newer Bio Lif which is made from almond leaves which naturally lowers pH (albeit slowly) as well as aid in the control of some pathogenic anaerobic bacteria (such as Aeromonas).
All these products tend to yellow the water, so keep this in mind, however this a very natural color for lower pH waters.
Pure Almond Leaves or Pillow Moss can be combined with Wonder Shells or SeaChem Replenish for an excellent over all treatment for essential mineral cations and natural water softeners and when used with Wonder Shells.
The combination of Pillow Moss and Wonder Shells easily exceeds Atison's Spa for this use as it supplies a better water softening properties and more importantly, a CONSTANT supply of mineral cations (unlike Atison's Spa).
CHEMICAL FILTER MEDIA CARE:
Chemical filter material varies widely, so there is no ONE way to tell when to change your chemical filter.
Often changes in water quality such as clarity or increased yellow tints are a sign to change/replace chemical filter products.
Drops in pH & KH and increased nitrates can also be an indicator.
As a GENERALIZATION I change or recharge these products once per month (or with multiple chemical filter products I may rotate one product one month and another the next).
Of coarse as I stated this is a generalization, so knowing your parameters or with high bio lode (or very light bio loads) your frequency may vary from more frequent to less frequent.
Also the use of aquarium medications/treatments may also require and "unscheduled" chemical filter media change.
Some products change color and can then be can be recharged; such as Purigen via a bleach soak of 1:1 bleach/water for 24 hours followed by a rinsing and 8 hour soak with 2 tablespoons of SeaChem Prime.
Zeolite can also be re-charged via saltwater soaks (which is why products containing Zeolite such as AmmoCarb CANNOT be used in saltwater aquariums.
Carbon, Bio-Chem Zorb and similar products are more difficult to gauge when best to change, so I recommend changing these as per my earlier comment of a regular schedule based on water quality and parameters.
|Other Recommended Reference Sites|
|-A useful source for current Aquarium Information and Resources (Pond too). Basic and in depth articles from Aquarium Lighting, Filtration, Fish Nutrition, UV Sterilization; Aquarium or Pond, Ick, Pond Care, Aquarium Nitrogen Cycle, and much more. Well researched and up to date aquarium and pond articles, answers, help, and links. Based on 33 years Professional experience & research in Los Angeles and now in Oregon. This Aquarium and Pond Information resource is a must read for any aquarist serious about current aquatic information and articles|
|For a friendly, Knowledgeable, aquarium forum with in a family atmosphere, Aquarium Forum; Everything Aquatic & Board is an excellent place to go for information, help or simply to share your love of the aquarium and pond hobby and help others. A superior place for information over such places as Yahoo Answers|
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